english definition word part of speech class register dialect notes

vettafami N I.


a bit ifi ADV


also used as a diminutive suffix
a bit sivue ADV


more like 'a tiny bit' actually, but can also sometimes used to mean 'a small bit', but then slightly marked
a day ago idoti a ikide ADV



a long time dooni a haad N I.


a lot haadat ADV


For bigger amounts. Smaller amounts use 'haad'.
a lot of haadat DET



abacus tikkivo N I.

First counting and mathematical operations in Jute were done by laying sticks in orderly heaps and adding/taking away from them.
abacus kihivo N C.


abandon iko V EV


ability eehi N I.


ability to collaborate feami N I.


abortion ilvunivuna N I.


about sie ADP


used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
about a ADP


can introduce nominalized subclauses, for example relative clauses
above ove ADP


usually used when referring to the highest level possible, or close to it, e.g. above or next to the top of a mountain, or abstractly or metaphorically in constructions like English 'above it all'.
above noohe ADP


used in comparisons, e.g. when saying something is at a higher level, unless it's at the highest level possible, in which case 'ove' (on, on top of, over) is used
absence ilni N I.


absolutely onke ADV



absorb heotano V EV


abstract concept finvi N I.

as opposed to less abstract concepts (which would be 'okiofe')
abstract thought finva N I.


abstraction finvi N I.


abstractness finva N I.


abugida hotivaf N I.


abuse dohui N I.


abuse dohuo V EV


accept dekiodo V EV

accept a person, fact, value etc., not accept something physically like a material gift
accept dekiodo hedo V EV

usually for physical objects or similar
access foa N C.

physical access to something, not metaphorical, digital or similar, unless specified.

Access to is 'foa li'
access tino V EV

for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
accessory va a mekoi N C.


accident hokoluki N I.


accommodate daho V EV

in transitive sentences with no adpositions. in intransitive sentences only used in some contexts.
accommodation dahi N I.


accomplish lomoho V EV


accomplishment lomohi N I.


according to na ADP



accuse sino ... tuvedati (a ...) V EV

a relative phrase explaining the crime such as 'hedeoheohi a vailitade' ('stealing of the vehicle') introduced by 'a' ('of') usually follows.

Intransitive sentences would not have the '-ti' indirect case suffix on 'tuvedati' and be understood to have 'someone/some people' as an implied subject.
achieve tefo V EV


achievement lomohi N I.


achievement tefi N I.


acid mellovi N I.

Has the 'immaterial/abstract' gender because it's a generic term, which also is covered by that gender.
acidify mellovo V EV


acquaintance mulda N C.


acquire evoto V EV

For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
across netune ADP


'across' in the sense of 'across a border/river/etc.', not '(everywhere) across the country'
across nane ADP


'across ' as in 'across the country', meaning 'everywhere in the country'
act aseji N I.


act like a clueless city dweller ninonato V UEV HMRS
almost always humorous
active voice toni a tahivide a amohi N I.


actor ama N I.


actually ihavane ADV



adapt hadolo V EV

Takes no adpositions.
adapt oneself to hadolo V EV

Takes no adpositions.
add keseho V EV


add mekoo V EV


add a hole tuloho V EV


addiction netuuni a anti N I.


addition mekoi N I.


additionally mekohe ADV



address lihoti N I.


addressee lihotona N C.


adherent kiatamo N C.

to an ideology
administer jufino V EV

a household, a business or similar, not a government
administration noitoti N I.

not commonly used for political institutions, unless they are also economical ones
administration jufini N I.

An alternative form is 'jufinafa', from 'jufini' + 'afa' (resultative suffix)
administration vunamoeni N I.

referring to the administration of a country, city or region
admit dekiodo V EV

especially when used together with 'teo' (need, have to)
adore uvado V EV


adult donosana N C.


adultery amdananoi N I.


advertisement vunoja a ukahi a ... N C.

the medium, such as TV (VVJ) or newspaper (hotif a dekihohi) added at the end
advise hao sahaamo V EV


affect fuedoho V EV

used for diseaseses and disease agents causing them
affect vetafamoo V EV

used for diseaseses and disease agents causing them
after tonte ADP


Preposition
after tonte ADP


Preposition
afterlife nideeni N I.


again atile ADV



against te ADP



against et ADP


Against the speaker (or the person being talked about), not originating from the speaker.

This is an 'antagonistic' against that can be the opposite of the other against.
If a speaker is fighting against an enemy, the speaker would describe the actions of the enemy that are targeting them with this 'against'
Same with sentences like 'If you had known who would be fighting against you ...'
age niho V UEV


age nihi N I.


agglomerate duvo V UEV


ago idoti ADV


used with 'a' (of) + oblique case
agree dekiodo V EV


agreement dekiodi N I.


agriculture haadi N I.


aim nojo ... vettonede V EV

Ellipsis gets replaced by the subject.

Physically existing targets for archery and the like.
Abstract/immaterial aims or targets use 'tefide' instead.
aim tefi N I.

A goal you set out and usually hope to be able to fulfill.
aim hotio V EV

used for guns, especially things like sniping, where the trajectory resembles more of a straight line
aim elkoo V EV

for bows and similar weapons, distinguished from 'elkoo' (to shoot) by context, adverbs or additional verbs like 'nuheo' (to try)
aimlessly udeltefe ADV



aimlessness udeltefi N I.


air huu N C.


air fohoo V EV


airship keneveje N C.


ajar fofe ADV



alarm tesohi N I.


alarm clock nuodona a tesohohi N C.


alas hokolukee I



alert tesohova N I.


alert tesoho V EV


alertness netidi N I.


algae tos N W.


algae-rich place dafe N W.


algorithm tonikki N I.


all af DET C.

referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
all efi P I.

referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
all efi DET I.

referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
all uf P W.

'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
all uf DET W.

'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
all af P C.

referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
alley tonat N C.


alliance kahani N I.


allow hoko V EV


allow nuo V EV


alloy eva N C.

only referring to naturally occurring alloys or combinations of metals, and only those already mined or obtained, not those still existing in deposits
alloy tusaheva N C.

referring to natural alloys containing silver that have been mined or obtained some other way or any kind of silver ore (e.g. Acanthite)
ally kahaniva N C.


ally kahano V EV

Often used with the reciprocal voice (-hut)
almond (uala a) tais N C.

'uala a' means 'nut of' and is often omitted
almost letoe ADV



almost always lidoonif ADV



almost nothing likiovile ADV



alone ike ADV



aloneness ikihi N I.


along na ADP


used for example to mean in expressions like 'along the beach'
alphabet hotivaf N I.


already lomohe ADV



alright kefi I



also uhu ADV



altar kevan N C.


always doonif ADV



ambition nuhei N I.


amid kove ADP



amnesia tuved a ilehi a nesatili N I.


amount evokihi N I.


amount haad N I.

particularly for rough estimates, uncounted amounts etc.

'haad a efi', literally 'all amounts' translates to 'any amount'
anarchism sahai a vunamoenil N I.

referring to the theory of anarchism, not e.g. any lifestyle, worldview etc. associated with it, which would be 'kiat a vunamoenil'
anatomy tonesani a mat N I.


and uh C


Variant: 'u'
and u C



and also uhe C



angel sainehuu N I.


anger ehevad N I.


angle fumooti N I.


anguish koli N I.


animal nova N C.


animal group jufu N W.

for wild animals only
animal husbandry sehuki N I.


animal keeper sehukimo N C.


anime koko N I.


ankle sulon N C.


annihilate ilno V EV


anniversary vuhatasi N I.

a holiday commemorating a specific event
announce tesohovo V EV


announcement tesohova N I.


announcer tesohovamo N C.

Announcer at e.g. sporting events, or a messenger announcing fresh news, not for 'official' political or other really important announcements.

'tesohovomo' is a variant, and has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'
announcer lihotafamo N C.

'official' announcer for public announcements regarding politics, public services etc. (that is, all the really important stuff), rather than for example an announcer at sport events, or a news announcer
annoy dusovo V EV


annoy vuato li V EV


annoyance vuatoli N I.


anoint meneso V EV


anorak muuvit N C.


answer memonki N I.

Not to scientific or mathematical problems, use 'evohi' (result) there
answer memonko V UEV

to answer something would be 'memonko tine', or literally 'to answer into', followed by a noun in the oblique case
ant meso N C.


anticipate netido V EV

usually something negative
antimatter ilvi N I.


anxiety sehukatidi N I.


anxiety havandi N I.

A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
anyway uhu ADV



apart from netie ADP



apartment kilitioha N C.

a single apartment, not a building or complex
apartment dovi a mihonohi N C.

a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
apartment mihonon a kilitiohi N C.

referring to a building or complex of apartments, a single apartment would be 'kilitioha'
apathy ilsehuki N I.


apologise nuheo mohomoo V EV

even used when the apology was accepted
appear edo V UEV


appear ilaso V UEV


apple tolkadolen N C.


approach letolo V EV


approach navo V UEV

Towards the speaker.
approach toni N I.


approach tonio V EV

a problem or similar, with a particular method or style
aqueduct nojivo a saavade N C.


aquifer oenava ude saavade N C.


archer seamo N C.

Archers who do archery as a sport, rather than military archers or those who use archery for self-defense.
archer elka N C.

also used for animals, monsters etc. that use weaponry akin to bows or other similar ranged ones.
archery elki N I.


architecture olumi a haadohi (a nonat) N I.

Together with 'a nonat' it means 'urban architecture'
area oee N I.

Used mostly for land areas only.

Spoken as two syllables.
argument siniva N I.


arise haado V EV

only in intransitive sentences
arm dena N C.


armour netumivo N C.


army ufenat N C.

referring to larger armies
army ufena N C.


around ufenav ADP W.

for things/places found in the wilderness, for example the jungle or the deep ocean
around afenav ADP C.

for known things/locations, especially in villages/towns
around efinav ADP I.

for immaterial/abstract/unknown things/places/concepts etc.
arrange kio V EV

transitive meaning
arrive edo V UEV


arrogance nohotai N I.


arrow tikavetifi N C.

sometimes also just called 'tikavet' (which usually means spear)
arrowhead kiovalvu N C.


arsenal uilan N C.


art olumi N I.


as todehente C



as udase C


used to talk about actions or events that happened at the same time, not for periods of time or similar
as ehe ADP



as ehe C


in the meaning 'according to what, in the same way', e.g. 'They did as they had to do', or 'As for example in...'
as na ADP



as if ehe C



ascend tovo V UEV


ascent tovivi N I.


ash vaneefa N C.


aside from leteve ADP C.


aside from letevu ADP W.


aside from letevi ADP I.


ask hao V EV


ask for hao V EV


assault vetafamoo V EV


assault vettafami N I.


assault vetafami N I.

including attacks by illnesses, but not heart attacks (see 'ilami a midu' for that)
assemble joo V EV

for regular meetings, especially for groups, societies etc.

Used only with the reciprocal voice.
assembly mihonafi N I.

larger, national or international ones, not local assemblies of communities or assemblies in schools, companies or similar
association joomi N I.


assume sahono V EV


assumption sahoni N I.

in case = 'ude sahonide'
just in case = 'nuhe sahonide a kiovif'
asteroid vuatavan a vuhifin N W.


astronomer asoivuhifimo N C.


astronomy asoivuhifi N I.


asylum nusaifon N C.


at ado ADP C.


at udo ADP W.


at ido ADP I.


at first nikie ADV



at least uuve ADV



at night in ooniva ADV


for talking about nights in general, rather than a specific one.
at night idoone ADV



at the bottom uuve ADP



at the other side of dee ADP



atheism ki a vunamal N I.


atheist homanuka a vunamal a iki N C.

some might imply this to include polytheists as well, but in general it is taken to refer to people who believe that there are no gods at all
atom viva N I.


attach kahano V EV

takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
attack fuedoho V EV


attack vetafamoo V EV


attack vetafami N I.

including attacks by illnesses, but not heart attacks (see 'ilami a midu' for that)
attempt doonava N I.


attempt doonavo V EV


attention sehuki N I.


attorney udimohomoo N C.


augmentative indicator ked AFF


Alternatively 'kedo' when followed by a consonant.

Denoting something that lasts, will last or is said to last an incredibly long time, or will take that long, for example a monument, story, or another work or deed that will never be fully completed.
augmentative indicator -at AFF



aunt or uncle avate N C.

anyone who is in the generation of the parents. The parents themselves are usually referred to as 'vunam', though
authority vunamat N C.

Legitimate and respected authorities who don't maintain their standing by force, fear or other coercive ways.
avenue tonadova N C.


avocado vohoso N C.


avoid amol V EV

conjugated like the regular negated form of 'amo' (to do), e.g. 'amot al ji' - 'This shall be avoided'
awareness jodaini N I.


away -hea AFF


-ehea after consonants (only in (proper) nouns)
away from eteve ADP C.

Postposition
away from etevi ADP I.

Postposition
away from etevu ADP W.

Postposition
baby nuinafi N C.


babysit vuammo V EV

For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
babysitter vuammo N


For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
back sivi N I.

as opposed to the front, including of abstract/immaterial things/ideas
back autti N C.


back tohene ADV


specifically 'back' to where the speaker is or, if running, came from.

Does not require a 'li' before the modifying noun.
back ilte ADV



back sivia N C.

as opposed to the front, physical objects only
back to tohene ADP


specifically 'back' to where the speaker is or, if running, came from. Used for example to urge someone to come back (e.g. 'Come back to use') but not to suggest to return. ('We should go back')

Does not require a 'li' before the modifying noun.
backpack onkaana N C.

referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
backwards iltone ADV



bad doohu N I.


bad luck hokoluki N I.


badly doohe ADV



bag onkifivo N C.

usually referring to smaller bags
bag onka N C.

usually made of jute fiber or similar, sealable and with no handles. Most similar to e.g. bags of coffee filled with bulk goods or liquids, not like a tote bag used for shopping.
bag vattivo N C.

a bag like a tote or travel bag used to carry things from one place to another rather than for storage, not commonly used for bulk goods unless they are packaged on their own
bag onkaana N C.

referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
bake honvano V EV


baking powder neu nuhe honvanohi N C.


baking soda kostui N C.


balance mohomo N I.

Especially a balance of nature.
ball utuki N I.


bamboo neut N C.


ban ilhoko V M

in transitive sentences or in intransitive sentences with a subject that is not human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
ban netuno V EV

e.g. websites, entire TV or radio stations, a language (from being taught in schools, appearing in bookstores) or a religion (e.g. from being practiced publicly).

Books, shows, movies etc. would use 'daho' if they are only banned from being sold and/or being broadcast, but 'netuno' if they are e.g. confiscated as well
banana hosoma N C.


band itikoma N C.


bank amini a noitoti a lumo a aminif N I.

if referring to a particular building/branch, it's 'amin a noitoti a lumo a aminif', which like the word for the business in general can be shortened to 'amanalaa'
bank otu N W.

referring to e.g. a river bank or similar that is dangerous to approach because it has predatory animals or some other danger there
bank amanalaa N I. CASL

bank net a tahoon N C.

referring to a river bank or similar
bank ota N C.

referring to e.g. a river bank or similar
bar tahoin N C.


barely ialme ADV



bark nofo V UEV

Lexember 4, 2015
bark hatova N



barkeep tahoinamo N C.


barn tunamova N C.

Originally, only smaller animals, for example birds or fowls, were domesticated on the shores where Coastal Jutean was spoken, hence why they were kept in rooms, as they didn't strictly need a separate building. Later, the meaning was expanded to include those, too.
barrier netunivo N C.


bartender tahoinamo N C.


base on juto V EV


base on oeno V EV

When talking about the (static) foundation of something like a house or other building, rather than the cultural or similar foundation of something more abstract/immaterial, like a way of life.
basic right hokonoeni N I.


basin saavan N C.

often used to refer to the body of water (e.g. lake) in it as well
basin tukivaad a saava N W.

a more specific term than 'saavan', which refers to both the basin and the body of water (such as a lake) in it
basin saavanu N C.

referring e.g. to a basin deep in a jungle, and usually the lake or other body of water in it as well, which were often filled with dangers such as murky waters, predatory animals etc.
basis oeni N I.


basket soa N C.


basket jevo N C.

referring to wicker baskets made from twigs such as willow or twine made from e.g. jute fiber
basket soat N C.

referring to larger baskets
bat kos N W.


bat vettivo N C.


batch ite N I.


bathroom tunasaava N C.


bathroom tunasaava N C.


bawl teluo V UEV


bay ulda N C.

referring to a gulf or similar body of water
be no V UEV


be no V UEV


be no V UEV


be absent ilnio V IT


be alone iko V IT


be appropriate onko V IT

in the sense of something 'being fitting', not when talking about behavior or words
be arrogant nohotao V UEV


be attacked teuto V IT


be aware jodaino V IT


be balanced mohomoo V IT


be bored feetedo V IT


be born vuno V IT

in intransitive sentences
be boundless netilo V UEV


be buried alive unso udase nide V IT

in transitive sentences 'to bury someone alive'
be burnable tiseeo V UEV


be busy amo V IT

intransitive meaning: 'be kept busy'

'Amo hotio ta' - 'I am kept busy (with) writing'
be calm mo V IT


be capable of eeo V UEV


be careful havando V IT


be certain ildeso V UEV


be cold ilvufano V UEV


be confused ilikio V IT


be content lomoho V IT

Used to mean 'be content with what you have, not wanting to have anything else'
be contested teuto V IT


be dangerous vano V IT


be defeated tefoeto V IT

only referring to cases where the speaker or the person being talked about was defeated
be dematerialised ilno V IT


be dry kesato V IT


be dull heito V IT


be empty nuuvo V IT


be endless netilo V UEV


be equal neho V UEV


be experienced nesano V IT

referring to professional skills or other ones acquired by studying or formalized training (excluding sports and fights)
be experienced donosano V IT

used in intransitive sentences, referring to 'life' knowledge, the kind that usually comes with old age, not professional experience
be finished lomoho V IT


be forgotten tataimo V IT

ergative
be fought teuto V IT


be fought over teuto V IT


be friends with udimimoo V EV

Intransitive meaning: 'to have friends, have become the friend of some' (when used with singular pronouns/referring to single people), or 'be friends' (when used with plural/collective pronouns/referring to multiple people)
be full onko V IT

the transitive meaning is equivalent to English 'be full of/with'
be generous saihonuo V UEV


be gone noheo V IT


be happy anindo V UEV


be held asijo V UEV


be held accountable amivoo V IT


be humble kainijato V UEV


be hungry muveo V UEV


be important hiido V IT


be imprisoned no ... tonte netunede V UEV


be in a coma netuno in ilvuhide V UEV


be in a condition sehukatovo V IT

particularly a concerning or worrying one, or similar other states of being
be in conflict with teuto V IT

transitive meaning, uses no adpositions
be in good shape lo V IT


be in order kio V IT

intransitive meaning
be in shock molo na aside V IT


be insufficient lolo V UEV


be intelligent hajeo V IT


be interested saimoho V IT

ergative verb
be interested ofo V IT

Slightly colloquial/poetic.
Comparable to English 'be caught up in something'
Takes the preposition 'ude' (with)
be just vuatuko V UEV


be kind dekimido V UEV


be laughed at veeho V IT

Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
be like eho V UEV

used with 'li' (to, towards)
be limitless netilo V UEV


be lost ejaho V IT


be loved diaadifo V IT

in intransitive sentences
be on edge netido V IT


be part of vo V IT

used with the preposition 'ude' (with)
be passionate vano V UEV


be possible hokono V UEV

be possible in a given situation. Used in intransitive sentences.
be possible eeo V UEV

be possible in general, regardless of specific circumstances, when not followed by another verb.
be powerful lumo V UEV


be public lihotafo V IT

transitive meaning: 'make sth. public (knowledge), nationalize'
be quick vuo V UEV

Also used to mean 'be quick with something' if followed by a second verb. In that case, the intransitive meaning shifts to 'be X-ed quickly'
be reached ijotido V IT

used when the target (a thing or a place) of the transmission, connection or similar (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract, e.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time as well anything unknown (including material things), e.g. an unknown place, with that which was used to reach the target a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
be regarded as sino V IT

In intransitive sentences
be related tahadovo V IT

ergative
be rinsed away felo V IT


be sad do fuedohi V UEV


be said to be memo V M

Used in intransitive sentences only and implies an impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is said that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is said to be a/an ...'

The sole argument is what would be the oblique object in a sentence with an explicit subject like 'Memo A a Dede' (A says [something] about D) expressing the same meaning.

A 'nuhe' is added before the person or people being addressed.

To express 'be said to X', where X is a different verb, it would have to be added after the main noun/pronoun as a phrase like 'tine X-GER' (inside X-ing)
be selfless nuohe V IT

'saini a nuohe' - 'selfless person'
be silent motevo V IT

intransitive meaning
be silly lemuso V IT


be skilled amesano V IT

takes the 'ude' (with) adposition and a gerund or abstract noun + oblique case
be smart hajeo V IT


be strict ildeso V UEV


be successful amefoko V IT


be sure ildeso V UEV

be certain about something, a belief or similar
be taken hostage noitadovo V IT


be thirsty lolo V UEV


be thrown ijoto V IT


be tired heito V IT


be trained donosano V IT

used in intransitive sentences, referring to physical activities, e.g. sport, combat etc.
be transmitted ijoto V IT

in intransitive sentences, can only have inanimate subjects
be trapped daho V IT


be trapped inside because of bad weather daho dehi (nadefa) V T

in a sentence, the subject would always be 'dehi' (weather), with the direct object being whoever is trapped.
be unbent ildeso V UEV


be unbowed ildeso V UEV


be undead delvunino V UEV


be understanding dekimido V UEV


be violent lumadoo V IT


be void nuuvo V IT


be weird ilninvo V UEV


be wild vano V IT


be windy huuso V IT


be written hotio V IT

in intransitive sentences
beach sanaanet N C.


beach saan N C.


beak onekaat N C.

only used for larger beaks, for example of an eagle or other predator birds

Lexember 5, 2015
beak onekafi N C.

only used for small beaks, for example of songbirds
bean nike N C.


beard lusa N C.


beast datu N W.

for big creatures (especially those significantly bigger or more powerful than a human)
beat midi N I.


beat mido V EV


beauty ohi N I.


beauty ohaji N I.


because todehente C



because of nuhe ADP



become evotono V UEV

This verb behaves like 'to be', it uses two arguments in the direct case, rather than objects in the indirect and/or oblique case.
become a black hole hemovuhifo V IT

alternatively, 'evotono ... hemovuhifi' can be used, with the ellipsis being replaced by the subject.
become a companion todehentemoo V UEV


become native juto V IT

originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning.

Not used for individual persons unless they are becoming native to a previously uninhabited place. If they become part of an existing society, 'jutio' should be used.
become native jutio V IT

in the sense of becoming a part of the culture of a society (for animals, plants and the like) or a member of it (for people)
bed mihinio V EV

Rare variant: 'mihinono' (from 'bed' + verb-suffix)
bed mihidon N C.

rare variant: 'mihinon'
bee ku N W.


before ajofane ADP



before doniha ADP



begin vuno V EV


beginning tini N I.


beginning vuni N I.


beginning niki N I.


behave toniamo V UEV

'tonijamo' is a dialectal variant
behaviour tonijamo N I.


behind tonte ADP


Preposition
being understanding dekimidu N I.


belief ki N I.

non-religious beliefs only
belief homanuki N I.


belief system kiat N I.

a belief system that encompasses many or almost all parts of life, rather than only a specific part
believe homanuko V EV


believe in homano V EV


believer homanuka N C.

e.g. in a religion
belly ummo N C.


belong ano V EV

For anything that might be seen as inalienable possession, or in the sense of 'feeling at home with' ('I belong with my family')
belonging to ane ADP


used in place of 'ano' (to inalienably belong to) when referring to oblique objects, for example for the 'of' in 'I am the best swimmer of my family'.

Using 'a' would imply that being a swimmer is an inalienable part of belonging to that family, at least for the speaker, rather than a circumstantial fact.
below sohuhe ADP



bend deso V EV


benthic zone saava a saanuvide N W.


benthos saanuviva N W.


berm uila a oena N C.


berth saava N C.


beside nav ADP



best uketa N I.

irregular superlative of 'uke' (good)
best ukeat ADV



best friend homo N C.


betray ilukaino V EV


better ukae ADV



betterness ukea N I.


between kove ADP



beverage tahoova N C.


beware netumio V EV


beyond dee ADP


Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'while passing a place' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)
beyond haae ADP



bicycle tok N C.


Big Bang tisolumi a vuni PPR I.


big order kiat N I.


big thing viat N I.


biggerness haada N I.


biggestness haadat N I.


bigness haad N I.


bile enuu N C.

sometimes also called 'tahava a keake' or 'liquid of liver'
bind kahano V EV

takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
biography tahina N I.


biological classification itohi a havan N I.


biological material va a havan N C.


biological process aseji a havan N I.


biology nesaniavan N I.


bird huuva N C.


birdsong tesohuuva N C.


birth vuna N C.


birth nuino V EV


birth date vuha u dotohaa a vuna N I.


bit sivue N I.


bite kiodemo V EV

specifically, 'to bite something off'
bite into duso V EV


bitumen tahadova N C.


black jehiluhi N I.


black hole hemovuhifi N I.


black ice haadalfani a jehiluhi N W.


blackbird keluu N C.


bladder onkaten N C.


blanket ikomivo N C.


bleed sumivo V EV


bleeding sumi N C.

used for bruises or smaller bleedings or similar injuries
bleep daho V T

In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati (ude viifede)' – 'to censor words (with bleeps)'
'daho tahodeniti (ude viifede)' – 'to censor a conversation (with bleeps)'

If bleeping has already been established as the method of censorship or can be deduced by context, than 'daho tahivati' can also mean 'to bleep words'.
blend keseho V EV


blend sedami N I.

if the mixture is a kind of blend of two or more things (not food), or consists of (finely or coarsely) grounded items (again, not food)
blend keseha N C.


bless fulmohomo V EV


blessing fulmohomi N I.


blind ijio V EV


blindness iji N I.


blink unvo V UEV


block netuno V EV

not just referring to blocking pathways etc. but e.g. also to blocking a signal (e.g. radio or internet), a language (from being taught in schools, appearing in bookstores) or banning a religion (e.g. from being practiced publicly)
block non N C.

forming one neighborhood, or a part of it.
blockade netuuni N I.

A mental block or blockade keeping you from doing something, be it what you want or need to do, or that keeps you from achieving (including, but not limited to spiritual) freedom, your full potential or other things.
blood tahavana N C.


blossom ohajo V UEV


blow huuso V EV


blow voo N EV

not used for the wind (which would be 'husoo')
blue jehaadufi N I.

Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
blunt heito V EV


boat saivo N C.


bob sao ... te u tohene ... V EV

First parenthesis is where the subject would go, second is where the object, if any, goes.
body mat N C.


body of water saavan N C.


body part mat N C.


body part matava N C.


bog vimel N W.

referring to cold or temperate wetland, not e.g. subtropical or tropical swamps or bogs
bog fenvolka N W.


boil favo ... an saavade V EV

'an saava' comes after the subject (that boils/is boiled)
bomb ijoto tisolumivo V EV


bomb tisolumivo N C.


bone vutamat N C.


bonfire vanon N C.


book hotif N C.


border netio V EV


border neti N I.


border crossing point netin N I.


border guard netimo N C.


border of civilisation netu N W.

Historically, the wilderness (rainforest) was the natural border of the Jutean villages.
bore feetedo V EV


boredom feetedi N I.


boredom donaheiti N I.

Also referring to the time spent being bored
borrow evoto V EV

For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
both lekee P



both lekee ADV



bother vuato li V EV


bottle kasiisii N C.


bottom uuva N I.


bottom of a water body saavanuvi N C.


boundary neti N I.


boundlessness netili N I.


bout saadi N I.

Only used for emotions and similar.
bow elko N C.


bowl tukivo N C.


bowl soa N C.


bowlful uisa N C.


box sevel N C.


braid amo ... juteti N T

also used for other fibers, but then with the phrasing 'amo ... ehe jutede' (work ... like jute)
brain anofa N C.


brainwash hotilvuho V EV


branch molu N W.

referring to fallen, usually large branches in the jungle or similar places
branch konu N W.

for larger branches still attached to trees in the jungle
branch tik N C.

smaller branches
branch kon N C.

for larger branches still attached to trees
brazil nut dunata N C.


bread deved N C.


break amdo V EV


break away amdoheo V EV

if referring to 'breaking away from something', like a country from a union or similar, the reflexive voice is used
break the law ilhoko V M

used in intransitive sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
breakfast favefa a vunuhi N I.


breakwater netun a saava N C.

a 'breakwater' is a construction that e.g. protects a harbor from the effects of bad weather
breast vume N C.


breastfeed nuvuhomo V EV


breath nosaa N C.


breath temosai N C.

referring to a single, or multiple breath of air
breathalyser vailivaso a nosaa N C.


breathalyzer vailivaso a nosaa N C.


breathe nosao V UEV


breathe in temosao V EV


breathing nosaohi N I.


breeze huusafi N C.


brick lotekeea N C.


bridge alvivo N C.


brightness vuhohi N I.

only used for the sun or similar astral objects
brightness voonohi N I.

used for smaller objects emitting light, not the sun or similar
bring tavuo V EV

'todivo' is a rare alternate form
bring away tavuheo V EV

when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
bring down noituuvo V EV


bring firewood inside tisivo V EV

can be used intransitively if e.g. the kind of firewood is made subject, or with the locative or instrumental triggers.
bring in tovo V EV


brownie hovanefafi a loduade N C.

Often shortened to 'hovalodua'
brownie hovalodu N C.
CIT
bruise sumi N C.

used for bruises or smaller bleedings or similar injuries
bubble voha N C.


bubble voho V EV

in transitive sentences: cause to have bubbles/be bubbling
bubbling vohi N I.


bucket soat N C.


bucketful uisat N C.

a measurement
bud luusa N C.


budget jufino V EV

to be economical
budgeting jufini N I.

An alternative form is 'jufinafa', from 'jufini' + 'afa' (resultative suffix)
build haado V EV


build a home haaheno V UEV


builder olumo N C.


building oluma N C.

a (physical) construction, particularly buildings, bridges etc.
building olumohi N C.

referring to the act of construction
building dovi a mihonohi N C.

a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
building hadeefa N C.


building tools haadivo N C.


bully dusovo V EV


bully heva N C.


bundle of jute fibers dufam N C.

referring to e.g. the drying fibers after they have been separated from the woody part of the stem
buoy umto V EV

used in transitive sentences
bureaucracy mahavi N I.

also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'

(Lexember 16 2016)
bureaucratic chaos mahavi N I.

also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'

(Lexember 16 2016)
burial unsi N I.


burial at sea unsi a saanu N I.


burn vano V EV


burn tiso V EV


burn tiso V EV


burn down tisoheo V EV


burn out tisoheo V EV

in intransitive sentences only
burn up tisoheo V EV

in intransitive sentences only
burn up tiso V EV


burnability tiseei N I.


burst tiso V EV


bury unso V EV


business amini N I.

referring not to a place, but the enterprise itself.
business amin N C.

referring to the physical location of an enterprise
but moji C



butter nea a akaviki N C.

dialectal term, somewhat loosely translated as 'ground milk', or more literally 'that which is ground [and] of milk'
butter kinu N C.


buzz asuuo V UEV

often pronounced [azu:]
by na ADP


used in the sense of 'through, by means of', as for example 'winning through/by luck'
by nav ADP


When referring to locations, such as 'by the tree'
by a ADP


used in the sense of 'a novel by me', but not in sentences like 'a novel written by me', where 'na' would be used instead
bye jootut (fa) PHR


The 'fa' is often omitted and only implied
cactus doka N W.


cage daho V T

used in transitive sentences only
cake hovanefa N C.

can be savory as well
calculate tikko V EV


calculation tikkohi N I.


calculator vailitikki N C.

often shortened to 'vailikki'
call sino ... ehe V EV


call sinivi N I.


call sino V EV


call sinivoo V EV


calm mo V EV


calm mi N I.


calm sea musu N W.


camp nuno tane mihononede a dela V UEV


campfire site tisan N C.


can eeo V UEV


can hokono V UEV


canal tonat a saava N C.


candle sefe N C.


candy somma N C.


candy visommu N C.


canyon faivun N W.


capability eehi N I.


capillarity evohi a emti a tahava N I.


capital sitti N C.


capitalism ki a hokehut a tonija N I.


car jaas N C.


car accident hokoluki a vailita N I.

the word for car, 'jaas', can be used, but it's uncommon
car crash atti a vailita N C.

the word for car, 'jaas', can be used, but it's uncommon
caramel ustiimi N C.


caraway minko N C.

referring to the spice
cardamom feo N C.


care sehuko V EV

doesn't require a benefactive for, but is sometimes inserted for emphasis, though this can be seen as ungrammatical.
care sehuki N I.


care for haado V EV

for plants in a garden or gardens in general
care for pet sehuko V EV

doesn't require a benefactive for, but is sometimes inserted for emphasis, though this can be seen as ungrammatical.
career tovivi N I.


carefulness havandifi N I.

less anxious, 'calmer' than the caution 'havandi' refers to
carelessness ilsehuki N I.


carnivore hemaviholu N C.


carrier vattimo N C.


carrot aeka N C.


carry vatto V EV


carrying vatti N I.


carve kiso V EV


carve hotio V EV


carve hotio V EV

mostly used to refer to carving something in, like letters or symbols, or a drawing
carve out kiso V EV


case sahoni N I.

in case = 'ude sahonide'
just in case = 'nuhe sahonide a kiovif'
case sevel N C.


case aseji N I.

e.g. of bad luck. in case = 'dee asejide'
cast a shadow ejoto V EV


cat nijauva N C.

Lexember 3, 2015
catalyzer udimivo N I.


catch daho V T

only sometimes used in transitive sentences to mean 'to catch with a net', 'to catch by locking up in a closed space' or something similar
catch ofo V EV

with hands, not by locking in or with a net or something similar, or for other animate or inanimate subjects
catcher ofomo N C.


catchment area oeefofeohi N C.

referring to the area that serves as the source for a water outlet, like a river
category nuaite N I.


cattle senuuja N C.


cauldron sedaat N C.


cause novi N I.


cause sehukivi N I.


cause novo V EV


cause a mass panic vomiso V EV

Intransitive meaning: 'to be used to cause a mass panic'
cause a problem vutano V EV

When used in a transitive sentence, the direct object has to be person, being, thing etc. that now is having a problem.
cause anguish kolijo V EV


cause concern sehukatovo V EV


cause pain holdo V EV

meaning used in transitive sentences
cause symptoms ilikimo V EV


cause to act unethically ilukainivo V EV


cause to worry sehukatovo V EV


caution havandi N I.

A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
cave vasa N W.


cavity tukivu a haad N W.

naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
cavity tukivu N W.

small naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock
celebrate doonato V EV


celebration doonat N I.


cell matavafi N C.


censor daho V T

In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati' – 'to censor words'
'daho vunojati/niooniti' – 'to restrict a show/movie from public viewing'
'daho kioviti' – 'to censor a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'daho hotifiti' – 'to restrict the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'

censorship dahohi N I.

Commonly used together with these words:

'dahohi a tahivade' – 'censorship/censoring of words'
'dahohi a vunojade/nioonide' – 'censorship/censoring of a show/movie'
'dahohi a kiovide' – 'censorship of a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'dahohi a hotifide' – 'censorship/restriction of the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'
centre midi N I.


centricity midi N I.


ceremony doonat a muje N I.


certainly ildese ADV



chain noitadova N C.

rarely, 'noitodovo' is also used for the noun
chain noitadovo V EV


chain together noitadovo V EV


challenge nuheo V EV

especially when used with the reciprocal voice, or in some contexts intransitively
challenge tei N I.


chance hokoni N I.


change ilehi N I.

literally 'unlikeness'
change ileho V EV


chant uivato V EV


chaos mahavi N I.

referring to political, bureaucratic or similar chaos that arises from a lack of organization or an overload of information, demand or similar.
chaos ilikiat N I.


character tonija N I.


character development tovivi N I.


characteristic eeofula N I.


chase noito to V EV


check vaso V EV


cheek keen N C.


cheese dafute N C.


chemical tahava a nesaniva N I.


chemistry nesaniva N I.


cherimoya suuma N C.


chest feohaa N C.


chew oneko V EV


chewing oneki N I.


chicken eselko N C.


chicken coop tuneselko N C.


chief vunamoena N C.


chieftain vunamoena N C.


child nuina N C.

Used for any relatives in your child's generation, this includes nephews, nieces etc.
childhood nihinuina N I.


chill uhaso V UEV


chin eku N C.


chirp siio V UEV


chirp diito V UEV


chocolate somaloda N C.


choice hedadi N I.


choose hedado V EV


chop tof N C.


chop tofo V EV


chorus uivimof N C.


chronicle hotif a tahif N C.


church mosaihin N C.


cinema nioonin N C.


cinnamon kimsii N C.


circle efeni N I.


circulatory system vattivo a mat N C.


city sitti N C.
CIT specifically, the city where the dialect is mostly spoken, but also sometimes used for other ones
city nonat N C.


city dweller ninonata N C.


city life ninonat N I.

usually neutral, but sometimes also mocking, rarely pejorative
city lifestyle ninonat N I.

usually neutral, but sometimes also mocking, rarely pejorative
civil war vetafa kove nonafede N I.


cladding desofena N C.

protective coating
claim sino ... havaniti V T


clan noni N I.

Jutean families traditionally tended to live a lot in the same place and didn't move around much.
clarify hujotivo V EV


clarity hujoti N I.


clash teut N I.

Not necessarily referring to a violent conflict, 'vettaf' is more commonly used for that.
clash with teuto V T

transitive meaning, uses no adpositions
classify ito V EV


claw vosa N



clay vonna N C.


clean saavo V EV


cleaner saavimo N C.


cleaning saavi N I.


cleanliness saveefa N I.


clear away ameo V EV


clearly hujote ADV



clearness saveefa N I.


cliff ialma N W.


climb loto N M

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)
climb tuloo V EV


climb down loto V M

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)
clip nioonifi N I.


cloak ejoto V EV


clock nuodona N C.


close femmoo V EV


close friendship homo N I.


closeness navi N I.


clot duvo V UEV


cloth desofenava N C.


clothes desofena N C.

for clothes that are wrapped around the body or put on in a similar way
clothing ejotamat N C.


clothing desofena N C.

for clothes that are wrapped around the body or put on in a similar way
cloud vianuhu N I.


club vettivo N C.


club molo V EV


club mola N C.

referring to bigger sticks
club fuumonifi N C.


coarse sand seku N C.


coarsely shredded coconut setaseka N C.


coast net N C.


coastal seafloor saanevi N C.


coastal water saanetava N C.


coastal waters saan N C.


coastline netaf N C.


coat ejoto V EV


cocoa lodua N C.


coconut utuko N C.


coconut butter nea a unosi N C.

ground fresh coconut meat, also known as creamed coconut
coconut cream keluko a afuva N C.

made like coconut milk, but containing less coconut water
coconut flour nea N C.

if not explicitly stated otherwise, otherwise it can refer to any kind of flour
coconut husk futuko N C.


coconut meat seta N C.


coconut milk keluko N C.


coconut oil lomni N C.


coconut water evutu N C.


code hotivahi N I.


code hotajoti N I.


coffee jefije N C.


coil desofeno V EV


coil desofenivo N C.


coir lojatuk N C.


cold ilvufani N I.


coldness husadi N I.


collaborate amaheho V EV


collaboration amahehi N


Mostly used as an adjectival noun with this meaning.
collapse fuedo V EV

ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to collapse', in transitive sentences 'to make collapse'
colleague amahehi N C.


collect uiso V EV


collect mushrooms uiso V EV


collective amafe N C.

refers to the group of the people working the land, can also be used to refer to manufacture, factory etc. syndicates
collective netuadovanafa N C.

referring to the collectively owned farm itself, but not the people working on it (and not to any collectively owned manufactures, factories, these use different words)
college solsuuka N C.


colonialism sahai a hedoheohi N I.


colour johi N I.

color + augmentative suffix (-it) = darker color (red -> dark red, brown)

color + diminutive suffix (-fi) = lighter color (red -> yellow, black -> gray)
colour joho V EV


comb kio ... lojati V EV

Referring to combing hair. The intransitive version would be 'kio loja' or 'hair is/was combed'
comb kiolojivo N C.

a comb for hair
combine keseho V EV


come edo V UEV


come ato V UEV


come across edojo V EV


come back atilo V UEV


come closer navo V UEV

Towards the speaker.
come from niko V EV


come into contact with femo V EV

e.g. an illness
comet atilu N W.


comfort homo V EV


command lumadoo V EV


command lumadoi N I.


commando unit amafiit a foohi N C.

responsible for freeing hostages (aka 'crack commando unit')
commando unit amafiit N C.


comment fuli N I.


commerce hokehut a efi N I.


commit adultery amdanano V UEV


committee joinuhi N I.


commonly anti ADV



commonness anti N I.


communicate nuudeko V EV


communication nuudeki N I.


communication system vaaki a nuudeki N I.


communism sahai a midi N I.


community nonaf N I.

Used for both communities of single settlements as well as the community of multiple settlements and/or sprawling bigger ones
community hall mihonafa N C.

In Jute, these can offer services such as mail, laundry, lunch, even public showers etc. and host events, including often the citizen assembly.
commute letafavuha N C.

Referring to the (usually) daily trips to work or school and back. Aside from e.g. bicycles, many Juteans also commute with boats on the many rivers of the main island.
commute letafo vuhe V UEV

See notes for 'letafavuha' (a commute)
companion todehentemo N C.


companionship todehentemi N I.


company amini N I.


compare ilehio V EV


compared to ilehe C



compass feet N C.


compatibility feami N I.


compensate mohomoo V EV


competition iduoli N I.


complain usolo V UEV


complete uvulvo V EV


complete lomoho V EV


completely lomohe ADV



completely onke ADV



completeness uvulvi N I.


completion lomohi N I.


complexity kiat N I.


compliance lomohi N I.


comprise hedotano V EV


computer lisenkaun N C.
CIT
computer vailidekiva N C.


computer work amadahi N I.


conceal ejoto V EV


concede dekiodo V EV

especially when used together with 'teo' (need, have to)
conceive saihono V EV


conceive nuino V EV


conceive dekio V EV


conceive saihono V EV


concept okiofe N I.

especially, but not exclusively, less abstract concepts (see also 'finvi' for that)
conception nuini N I.

literally 'giving a child [to the world]'
conceptualise okio fe V EV

'fe' is treated like any other adverb and put at the end of the sentence/phrase
concerning sie ADP


used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
concerning ande ADP



conclude ivusao ... li V UEV

'li' would properly be translated as 'that', as in 'to conclude that'
conclusion ivusai N I.


condensed milk akaviki a vanohi a ilvufani N C.

Sweetened condensed milk would be 'akaviki a vanohi a ilvufani a sommu', though sometimes, like in English the 'sweetened' part can be dropped if the context makes it clear.
conditional indicator -ke AFF


suffix for infinitive verbs,
becomes -k in front of verbal particles or words starting with 'h'
confection somma N C.


conference centre dahon N C.


confidant mulda N C.


confidence fesualumo N I.


confirm dekio ni V EV

intransitive meaning translates to '(This is/was/has been) confirmed'
conflict vettaf N I.

For violent conflicts.
conflict teut N I.

Not necessarily referring to a violent conflict, 'vettaf' is more commonly used for that.
confront teho V EV


confront dovo te V EV


confrontation tei N I.


confuse tuomo V EV


confuse ilikio V EV


confusion iliki N I.


connect kahano V EV

loose connection, one that can easily be separated again later on, takes the 'ado/ido/udo' ('at') adposition
connect tahadovo V EV

ergative
connection tahadovi N I.


connection kahani N I.

loose connection, one that can easily be separated again later on
connector kahanivo N C.


conquer hedoheo V EV


conscience nuahukaini N I.


consequence noitili N I.


conservatism sahai a hi N I.


conserve ho V EV


consider sahaamo V T

Meaning when used in transitive sentences (that is, with an object)
consideration dekimidu N I.


consonant tesohilehi N I.


constellation tahadovi a vuhifi N I.


constitutional right hokonoeni N I.


construct olumo V EV

see notes on 'olumo' (create)
construction oluma N C.

a (physical) construction, particularly buildings, bridges etc.
construction olumohi N C.

referring to the act of construction
construction site olumohin N C.


construction worker olumo N C.


contact femo V EV


contact hooji N I.

originally meant only physical contact, now sometimes used in a wider sense
contain daho V T


contain soo V EV


container soat N C.

referring to larger containers, usually open ones that have no lid
container onkifivo N C.

usually referring to smaller containers
container onka N C.

especially for liquids or bulk goods, not e.g. books
container sevel N C.


contempt ilukaini N I.


content va N I.


contentiousness ildekiodi N I.


continent savanhuva N W.


continue ho V EV


contradiction etohei N I.

either a statements that contradicts itself, or something that is logically not possible
contribute to mekoo V EV


contribution nuokeda N I.


control lumadoo V EV

referring to overbearing, oppressive or subjugating control, the way an abuser can control a victim or a dictator tries to control one or several populations, usually involving violence
control hotuvo V EV

referring to overbearing, oppressive or subjugating control, the way an abuser can control a victim or a dictator tries to control one or several populations, usually referring to non-violent ways of doing that
control amivo N I.

(Having control over something is often necessary to be able to do anything at all)
controllability amivi N I.


controversy ildekiodi N I.


conversation tahodeni N I.


ConWorkShop Konveeksehod PPR



cook favo V EV

cognate with NGU 'pawo'
cook favefamo N C.


cooking favi N I.


cooking utensils favivo N C.

mostly pots and pans, but can also include ladles and spatulas (though then only in combination with the former)
cool thing vikiniv N I. SLNG

cope vatto V EV


copra setavuha N C.

also known as dried coconut meat
cord lojatukefa N C.


core nike N C.


corn flour nea a telso N C.

'telso' (corn) can be replaced by other words to get the terms for other kinds of flour
corner fumooti N I.


correspond lihoto V EV


corrupt ilukainivo V EV


corrupt hotilvuho V EV


cotton salav N C.


cough lohoo V UEV


council hetoni N I.


count kihio V EV


country oena N C.

When talking more about the land, rather than the institutions or politics (exception: geopolitics)
country vunaman N I.


country bumpkin nivimofi N C.

context and tone of voice determine whether the term is pejorative or not
county uisifi N C.

A smaller collection of communities (usually nine or ten)
couple liiki N I.


course noiti N I.


court mohomoon N C.


court tuko V EV

requires no adpositions
courthouse mohomoon N C.


cousin nulunam N C.

Rarely used, only for disambiguation purposes, similar to for example the 'maternal' in English 'maternal grandmother'
cover ikomo V EV

when covering is not done to hide anything or anyone, but e.g. for protective purposes
cover ejota N C.


cover ejoto V EV


cover tightly fudo V EV


covfefe jefdodo N I.

also used for other hot beverages, if the effect is similar
cower veso V UEV


crab tefe N C.

see http://conworkshop.info/view_article.php?ns=880d69909bd1e58636ca9f07d17eca55 for details on sound changes
cradle homo V EV


cradle homivo N C.


craft vamefa N C.


craft vamoho V EV


crafting utensils vamivo N C.


craftsman vamo N C.


craftsmanship vami N I.


crane toha N C.


crash atti N I.


crash atteo V M

see notes for 'atteo' (run into)
crater tukivaad a hisetuvan N W.


crawl felto V UEV

Moving slowly on hands and knees, by dragging the body along, or normally with frequent stops.

Used for animals, insects, and wounded humans, but not babies.
craziness fesuu N I.


cream akaviki a afuva N C.

referring to the dairy product
cream cheese dafute a musuu N C.


creaminess suumi N I.


create vuno V EV


create olumo V EV

either something physical, that the speaker or the person talked about directly made on their own with their own skills (not let someone do for them), or some abstract/immaterial thing like a theory, story or language.

Usually used for bigger / more important things like a house, rather than a simple recipe.
(Using it anyway for those would seem pretentious, as if praising it as a culinary revolution)

Implies, when not used with 'he' (now) to signify an ongoing process, a state of completion.

Also often used for the doings and creations done by supernatural forces or beings, including deities, but usually excluding when talking about all-powerful gods of monotheistic religions (since a god like that is called 'vunam', 'vuno' is more appropriate and gives the right connotation)
create a black hole hemovuhifo V EV


create a void nuuvo V EV


Creator vunam PPR



creature datu N W.

for big creatures (especially those significantly bigger or more powerful than a human)

Origin of the augmentative suffix 'at'
creek lufe N C.


creep felto V UEV

Moving slowly on hands and knees, by dragging the body along, or normally with frequent stops.

Used for animals, insects, and wounded humans, but not babies.
cremation unsi a tisohi N I.


crew amafe N C.


crib homivon N C.


cricket siiahoone N W.


crime amevoohu N I.


criminal amevohumo N C.


cringe desofenofi N C.


cringe desofenofo V UEV


crispiness naksi N I.


crisscross teute ADV



criteria vuativo N I.


criteria nuaiteva N I.


critter fomkava N W.

small animals living in the undergrowth, like insects, worms, spiders, snails, rodents, small predators
cross netuno V IT

When talking about crossing a river or anything else that separates two places.
cross alvo V EV

e.g. to cross someone's path, or travel through a country
cross a border netuno V IT


crossbow elkelami N C.


crunchiness naksi N I.


crush kummato V EV


crush lumadoo V EV


cry teluo N I.


cry usolo V UEV


cry teluofi N UEV

soft, quieter crying
cry usoli N I.


cry teluo V UEV

louder crying
cry softly teluofo V UEV


crystal vatavuhi N C.


cultivate juto V EV

originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning.

Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
cultivate haado V EV

Recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
cultivation haadi N I.


cultivation jutai N I.

Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
culturally jutihe ADV



culture juti N I.


cup late N C.


cup utuka N C.


cupcake kamkeik N C.


cupful uisa N C.

used as a measurement, similar to 'cups' in English, can also be translated as 'bowlful'
cure nusaifo V EV


cure nusaifi N I.


curve desi N I.


custom hi N I.


customer hemetamo N C.


customs eveset N I.


customs station evesetan N C.


cut tof N C.


cut kiova N C.


cut kiovo V EV


cut off tofo V EV


cut off kiovoheo V EV


cuteness uvadivi N I.


cyan jehaadufi N


Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
cycle ooni N I.


cycle oono V UEV

referring to how the moon goes through a cycle about every month
cyclone fivou N W.


daily vuhe ADV



damage dohufo V EV


damage dohufa N I.


dampen unosifo V EV


dampness unosifi N I.


dance tuko V UEV


dance tuka N C.


dance step tuki N I.

usually not referring to just a single dance step, but to some or all of the steps making up a dance
dancer tukamo N C.

a professional dancer
danger van N I.


dark colour johi a haada alvuhi N I.


dark energy amivi a ilvuhi N I.


dark flow saa a ilvuhi N I.

Alternatively, some scientists prefer 'taha a ilvuhi' ('flow of darkness')
dark matter vi a ilvuhi N I.


darken ilvuho V EV


darken jotavo V EV

some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
darkness fejota N I.

all-encompassing darkness (though not necessarily pitch-black darkness), like during a solar eclipse.
darkness ejotava N I.

used to refer to the essence of shadows (lack of direct light, shadiness), for example the shadiness of places, or a not-totally-pitch-black darkness (that would be 'ilvuhi', 'unlight') that isn't all-encompassing ('fejota', 'eclipse')
darkness ilvuhi N I.


darkness ooniva N I.

semantically between 'ejotava' (shadiness, lack of direct light), and 'ilvuhi' (pitch-black darkness)
darling nisaani N C. HUMB
'' 'Life-beach' [is] meant as 'you're as wonderful, relaxing and beautiful as the beach I want to spend my life on' Since the beach is the favorite place to be for many speakers of the language, comparing someone to it is a huge compliment.''
darn! faven I



data dekiva N I.


date fumodia N I.


date fumodiamo N C.

referring to a person someone is dating or is going to date
date night oone a fumodia N I.


dawn vunuhi N I.


dawn vunuho V UEV


day vuha N I.


deafness motevivo N I.


death ilvunini N I.

death in general
death ilvunina N C.

a specific death of someone or something
death penalty mohomovo na ilvuninide N I.


debt ilhi N



debtor ilhimo N C.


decay ilhaadi N I.


deceive ijaino V EV


deception ijaini N I.


decide vuato V EV

'to decide for' is 'vuato ... nuhe'
decision vuati N I.

'to reach a decision' would be translated with something literally meaning 'to put down a weight'
declaration uivata N I.


decorate vuhefo V EV


decoration vuhefefa a ohaji N C.

garlands, festoons, anything bright and/or colorful
deed amefa N I.


deep uuvali N I.


deep vasa N I.

also used e.g. to describe deep voices, echoes, wells but not for deep caves or similar (which would be 'vasa a haad' or 'vasa ude uuvalide a haad'). Holes can use either.
deeply uuvale ADV



defeat lumoo dee V EV

usually referring to defeats achieved through physical might rather than skills or luck, with exceptions
defeat tefoto V EV


defect ilami N I.


defect ilukivahi N I.


defence hetevi N I.


defend against tefetevo V EV

Used for successful defenses only. That which is defended gets preceded by 'nuhe' (for), that which is defeated by 'te'.
defender hetevimo N C.


degree vanifiva N I.


deity vunamat N I.


deity fesua a vunam N I.


delete ilvunito V EV


deliciousness sinamvi N



delight sovi N I.


deliver edovo V EV


deliver nuino V EV


delta vei N C.


delude ilhavano V EV

more properly 'delude someone into thinking/believing something', unless followed by a verb
demand havetto V EV


demand havetti N I.


demand haava N I.


dematerialise ilno V EV


democracy vunamoeni a sainif N I.


demolish kummato V EV


demon fesuu N W.


deny ilhomanuko V EV


deny allo V EV


depart to at V UEV


depend on juto V T

for anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
depend on oeno V EV

for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('juto' would be used in those cases)
depending on oene ADP


for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('jufe' would be used in those cases)
depending on jufe ADV


anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
depose ilvuato V EV


depression tukivu a haad N W.

naturally formed hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
deprive kiovoheo V EV


depth uuvali N I.


descend tuuvo V UEV


describe nuudekano V EV


description nuudekani N I.


desert iko V EV


desert nuuvun N W.


deserve tehoko V EV


desire tahividu N I.


desire saimo midu ... V T

requires an object
desire dololo V EV


despise femelo nav V UEV


despite heijea C



despot hotuvimo N C.


destination tefa N C.

not for abstract destinations, for places in the physical sphere only (rarely for places in a supernatural sphere)
destroy ilvunito V EV


destroy ilno V EV


destroy kummato V EV


destroyer ilvunomo N C.

someone whose profession is destruction
destruction ilvunit N I.


develop mould mellovo hesso V UEV


device vahi N C.


devil ilvunimo N C.

Culturally, the existence of a devil was an unfamiliar concept for the most time and was only later introduced via missionaries from other nations, who equaled the devil to the suffering of death, dying and disease.
dew aam N C.


dialetheism ki a tahivahani a leke N I.


diamond somuna N W.


diaper desofenafi N C.


dictator hotuvimo N C.


dictatorship hotuvimi N I.


dictionary hotif a tahiva N C.


die ilevoto ... nosaati V EV

In intransitive sentences, the indirect case suffix -ti of 'nosaati' is omitted, and the sentence would therefore read as 'someone/some people die/died' (lit. 'Breath was lost')

Transitive ones, such as 'Ilevoto la nosaati', would translate as 'He/She/They died' (lit. 'He/She/They lost their breath') instead.
die ilvunino V IT


die on the spot ilvunino se jaman V EV

alternatively 'jumun' instead of 'jaman', when talking about something that happened in jungles or on the ocean
differ ileho V IT

used with the preposition 'ude' (with)
difference ilehi N I.

literally 'unlikeness'
differently ilehe ADV



difficulty vuati N I.


dig miko V EV


dig a hole tuloho V EV


dignity nukani N I.


dim jotavo V EV

some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
diminish ilhaado V EV


diminutive fi AFF



diner hemonifi N C.


dining room hemon N C.


dining room tunahemo N C.

any kind of room where you regularly eat meals
dinosaur vakelaadat N W.


direct nojo V EV

Ergative.
Used in the sense of 'directing someone or something (to something or someone)', not in the sense of 'to give orders'
direct noito V EV


direct tonaho V EV


directing noji N I.


direction noiti N I.

A chosen direction, like a set course.
direction noji N I.


dirt vikinivo N C.


dirtily vikinive ADV



dirtiness vikini N I.


disagreement ildekiodi N I.


disappear jaso V UEV


disappear iledo V UEV


disappear ejaho V EV


disappearance jasi N I.


disbelieve ilhomanuko V EV


discard eeovolo V EV


discover edohio V EV


discovery edoja N C.

when found by chance, and not after a deliberate search
discovery teka N C.

when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
discovery edohia N I.

especially of something never before seen, or not in a very long time
discrepancy etohei N I.


discuss saihasao V EV


discuss tahoo ... dee V EV

The direct object is whatever is being discussed or negotiated.
discussion tahodeehi N I.


disease ilikimat N I.


disguise ejoto V EV


disguise ejota N C.


disgust honea N I.


disgust honeavo V EV


dish favefa N C.


disharmony ilmohomo N I.


dishonour ilukaino V EV


dishonourableness ilukaini N I.


dishonourably ilukaine ADV



dislike kilitio V EV


dismiss tovoheo V EV


dismissal ilvuati N I.


disorder iliki N I.


disorderlily ilike ADV



dispense nuo V EV


dispenser nuatahava N C.

only for liquids
dispute ilhomanuko V EV


distance kilita N I.

from a distance - 'nav kilitade' (near a distance)
distance oneself kilitiohe V UEV


distinctiveness tai N I.


distinguish kilitio V EV


distrust ildudimo V EV


disturb ilikio V EV


disturbance iliki N I.


dive jaso V IT


dive jasi N I.


divide up kiovo V EV


dna hotajoti a ni N I.


do amo V EV

perform

also used to mean 'be busy with something', often followed by an infinite verb or direct object describing the situation.

'Amo hotio ta hotifiti' - 'I am busy writing a letter'
do forced labor hotuvonito V IT

Referring to coerced work.
do horrible evil ehevadato V UEV


do something hateful ehevado V UEV


do something ugly ehevado V UEV


dock saivon N C.


doctor nusaifomo N C.


documentation vunoja a asoi N I.

not used for observation of smaller things, animals or plants (where 'vunoja a hujota' would be used), but instead for documentaries on bigger places, things or events.
dog nofa N C.


dog food heme nuhe nofati N C.


dog house nofan N C.


doll sainitik N C.


domesticate juto V EV

originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning
domestication jutai N I.

Used mostly when talking about the first time something is cultivated, not when talking about recurring/perennial/yearly cultivation.
donate nuoko V UEV

'to donate something' would be 'nuoko ude' (donate with)
donate nuuheo V EV


donkey meekelen N C.


doom nivandovi N I.


door femmo N C.


double donaleko V EV


doubt saihasai N I.


doubt saihasao V EV


down tuuve ADP



down tuuve ADV



dragon vakelavan N W.


dragon catcher dahomo a vakelavan N C.

Idiomatically also someone who achieves what seemed impossible, or manages to successfully complete a dangerous job, can be used as a compliment.

Also appears in the idiom 'Nol ta/na/fan dahomol a vakelavan' ('I'm/You/You all are no dragoncatcher(s)'), when you want to call out underachievement.
draw up a report ito tesohoviti V EV

In intransitive sentences, 'tesohoviti' would lose the 'ti' indirect case suffix.
dream nioono V EV

Intransitive/patientive meaning: 'be dreamed about'
dream niooni N I.


dress ejoto V EV


driftwood umta N C.


drink tahava N C.

also includes drinks that aren't water-based
drink tahoonava N C.

water-based, or, by extension, water-like drinks
drink tahoo V EV


drive tovo V EV

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to drive a car' would be 'tovo ado' (drive at, for most vehicles with no roof excluding boats) or 'tovo naha' (drive inside, for everything else)
driving under the influence tovohi dee nisaifide a ilehi N I.


drool foseo V UEV


drop fuedo V EV

ergative
drop of water savafi N C.


drop of water on a plant after rain when sunlight hits it saavuhifi N C.


drought kesatedona N I.


drown sohusaavo V EV


drug nusaifivo N C.

medical drugs only
drum kemme N C.


drunk driving tovohi tonte tahoohi (oos) N I.


drunkard tahoosamo N C.


drunkenness vohi N I. POET
originally poetic, but also used colloquially
drunkenness tahoos N I.


dry kesato V EV


drying kesati N I.


dryness kesate N I.


duct nuatahava N C.

for ducts or pipes that are only connected on one end and dispense water or some other liquid on the other one, e.g. for washing or drinking
dude mafemo N C.


dullness ilkiova N I.

when referring to things like knifes etc.
dullness heiti N I.


dumpsite eeovolan N C.


during udase ADP


used to talk about actions or events that happened at the same time, not for periods of time or similar
during dee ADP


Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'while passing a place' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)
dusk jotti N I.


dust oenavafi N C.


duty ami N I.


duty eveset N I.


dwell nuno V UEV


dweller nunuu N W.

for wild beings, beasts etc. Anything animate, mostly those that are capable of moving.
dweller nuna N C.

Anything and anyone animate, but mostly referring to those that are capable of moving. Wild beings can also be referred to as 'nunu'
dwelling non N C.


e-mail hotifaaho V EV

both to write and send or receive e-mails
e-mail hotifaahi N I.


each ufava DET W.


each afava DET C.


each efiva DET I.


ear madeka N C.


earlier dote ADV


standard indicator for past tense if the exact time is unknown
earth oenu N W.

The soil or earth in the jungle.
earth oena N C.


earth oenava N C.

Referring to some soil or earth, not soil or earth in general. Can also be used to talk about the material of which soil is made up.
Earth savanhu PPR



earth science tonesani a oena N I.


earthquake saauvu N W.


east livunuhi N I.


eastward livunuhe ADV



eat hemo V EV


eater hemo N C.

Someone who eats for a living, or is known for always eating much, or when referring to what someone eats. (i.e. 'plant-eater': vegetarian)
eccentric sainaimo N C.


eccentricity sainahai N I.


eclipse fejota N C.


eclipse fejoto V EV


ecology tonesani a nuhuhaadu N I.


economy aminif N I.

also referring to businesses in general, or all businesses of a given place
ecosystem nuhuhaadu N W.

referring to land ecosystems, sea ecosystems are 'nuhuhaadu a saanu'
edge kiovalvu N C.

usually referring to a sharp edge of something
edge ota N C.

referring to e.g. a river bank or similar
edge otu N W.

referring to e.g. a river bank or similar that is dangerous to approach because it has predatory animals or some other danger there
edify olumo V EV


education noitosani N I.


eel aadu N C.


effect amefa N I.

For intentioned effects mostly, or when blaming an effect, intentional or not, on someone, as e.g. expressed in exclamations like 'This is your work'
effect mekonifi N I.


effect evohi N I.

particularly for unintentional effects, intentional ones would use 'amefa'
egg fiva N C.


egg white saavafiva N C.


egg yolk vuhafiva N C.


egoism ikihi a saini N I.


eight kiif-sema NUM



elaborate masijo V EV


elastic band kanafi a dahohi N C.

also known as 'rubber band'
elder vunamoena N C.

for village elders or similar positions only
elder nihamo N C.

usually a respectable title, not used much mockingly
electricity lumokele N I.


electrocute keleo V EV


electron jesemek N I.


element va N C.


element vi N I.


eleven leke-kiivi iki NUM



else ilehe ji C



elsewhere etevehen ADV


embolden nulumo V EV


embrace uvado V EV


embrangle kuselo V EV


emerald suus N W.


emerge ilaso V UEV


emergency tehivaat N I.


emergency services hokedi a udimi a vui N I.


emergency services hokedi nuhe tehivaatede N I.


emotion di N I.


empathise tahadovo V EV

ergative
emperor asut N C.


emphasis okiovi N I.


emphasise okiovo V EV


empire asutan N I.


employee ama nuhe (sainiki) N C.


employer saini a haohi a amohi a sainide a ilehi N C.


employment amohi nuhe saini a ilehi N I.


empower nulumo V EV


emptiness nuuvu N I.


empty nuuvo V EV


enable hoko V EV


enchant tisefo V EV


encircle ufeno V EV

not encircle something with a pencil, but trap someone with obstacles, a group of people standing around or an army
encircle efino V EV

drawing a circle with colors, lines, on some material or in digital environments
encompass daho V T


encyclopaedia hotif a nesani N C.


end uvulvo V EV

end something by completing it, not interrupting or similar
end ilvuno V EV


end ilvuni N I.


end part kiovilvu N C.


end tragically utolo V EV

specifically: to meet an tragical end by becoming the victim of oppressive colonisators
endangered species ilehu a ejahohi N W.


endeavour nuhei N I.


endlessness netili N I.


enemy vettimo N C.


energise nusaifo V EV


energy amivi N I.

more used in the scientific sense, than for 'I lack the energy to do this'
energy nisaif N I.

Mostly used for humans or other animate beings (including plants and the like), sometimes also for inanimate forces of nature. Only rarely in the more general, scientific sense, where 'amivi' would be preferred.
energy weapon vetafivo a tisoi N C.


engineering tonesani a haadohi (a nonat) N I.

Together with 'a nonat' it means 'urban engineering'
enjoy saihoko V EV

When used in intransitive sentences (lacking a direct object)
enlarge haado V EV


enlightenment tovivi N I.


enmesh kuselo V EV


enough le ADV



enter tano V EV


enterprise amini N I.


enthuse tisefo V EV


enthusiasm saimohaa N I.


entireness efi N I.


entity vi N I.

unknown/unspecified thing
entropy ilikiat N I.


entry tani N I.


envelop fudo V EV


environment havan N W.


environmentalism sahai a mohomo havandi N I.


envy vetohi N I.


envy vettildeho V EV


enzyme udimivo (a mat) N I.


epic tahihaad N I.


episode kiovi a vunoja N I.


epistemology tonesani a tahivahani N I.


equality nihi N I.


equally nihe ADV



equilateral triangle hotikiuki a nihi N I.


equipment vaivo N C.

general term
equipment dovevivo N C.

for lumberjacks
erect olumo V EV

see notes on 'olumo' (create), 'olumo' (institute) and 'olumo' (establish)
error ilukivahi N I.


escape netuno V IT

Only used for prisons or walled cities. The location being left behind is preceded by either a 'dee' (past) or 'eteve/etevi/etevu' (away from)
escape to netunede dee V UEV

Originally referring to running away from a town where you were kept as a captive, but with a broader meaning now
escape foho V UEV


especially ovefe ADV



essay ivusa N I.


essence nisaif N I.


establish olumo V EV

for more general things, like constitution, social order, political system or metaphysical/religious view
establishment juton N C.

More general than 'non', which refers more to settlements as in village/dwelling
eternity kedoonifi N I.


euphony tesohafe N I.


evade deo V EV


evaporate favohea V EV


even udehu ADV



even uhu ADV



even though heijea C



evening tooni N I.


evenness kelami N I.


event asi N I.


eventually hoilohe ADV



ever idate ADV



every ufava DET W.


every efiva DET I.


every afava DET C.


everything efi P I.

referring to unknown / invisible objects, or for general statements.
everything uf P W.

'Wilderness' gender variant, referring to things that can be found in a jungle or the deep ocean.
everything af P C.

referring to known / visible objects (e. g. everything here, all food, was caught in the ocean), not a general statement
everywhere ufahen ADV W.

used exclusively in 'wild places' for visible places surrounding the speaker, e. g. the jungle
everywhere efina ADV I.

used to mean 'everywhere, not just here'

Spelling variant: 'ifana', which is closer to 'ufana' (everywhere in the wilderness)
everywhere ufana ADV W.

used to mean 'everywhere in the wilderness' to make general statements about places like the jungle, the ocean and so on
everywhere afenav ADV C.

Used mostly to mean 'everywhere here', that is, only including the places near to the speaker
everywhere afahen ADV C.

used exclusively for visible places surrounding the speaker
evil tuved N I.


evildoer tuveda N C.


evolution ilehi a havan N I.


exactly se ADV



exactness sei N I.


example masijivo N I.


except for mojile ADP



exceptionality nohefi N I.


exceptionally nohefe ADV



exchange hokehut N I.


exchange hokehuto V EV


excite tisefo V EV


excluding netie ADP



excuse dekiovo V EV


exercise power lumoo ... ove V EV

Refers to exercising power in an unjust, unjustified coercive way.
exhaustion heitidi N I.


exist no V UEV


existence ni N I.


exit foho V UEV


expand kilito V EV


expect sahasio V EV


expectedly sahasie ADV



expedition havansotiit N I.

For scientific expeditions and for adventurous traveling in unexplored places.
expel lutoheo V EV


experience dono V EV


experience donosani N I.

Refers to actions that expand one's (life) knowledge and/or skills, or that knowledge itself, not the experiencing of certain feelings or the like.
experience doni N I.


experienced person donosana N C.


expire mellovo V EV


expiry mellovi N I.


explain dekiovo V EV


explain masijo V EV


explanation masiji N I.


explode tisolumo V EV


explore sondo V M

rarely 'sooto' in some dialects

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones).

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. A described location is preceded by 'ado/ido/udo' (at).
explorer sonda N C.


explosion tisolumi N I.


export vattihea N I.


express nuudeko V EV


expression hedojai N I.


extinguish ilvuno V EV


extinguisher ilvunivo a vanide N C.


eye maja N



eyelid madaja N C.


fabric desofenava N C.


fabric dela N C.

especially for fabric that has not been cut or made into clothing yet, unworked fabric
face dovo te V EV


face joafa N C.


face teho V EV


fact vi N I.


fail illomo V UEV


fair hemen a vuhat N C.

referring to a town/county fair or similar
faith homanuki N I.


fake ilhavani N I.


fall tuuvi N I.

for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
fall fuedo V EV

ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to fall', in transitive sentences 'to fell'
fall asleep nuuheohe oonide V UEV


fals kotid N W.


falsehood iltavani N I.


familiarise yourself with fuumo V EV


family jufi N C.


fan fohoivo N C.

referring to e.g. a paper fan
fan fohoo V EV


fanciness hosoi N I.


far away ha ADV



farm haadon N C.

for bigger, less garden-like farms, that are mostly or exclusively horticultural ones.
farm haado V EV

not for animals
farm fefon N



farm netuadovanat N C.

For large garden-like farms, having flowers as well as some vegetable crops, bushes etc.
farm animal amova N C.


farmer haadomo N C.


farming machine haadovaili N C.

(those that take over a manual job completely rather than serve as an aid)
farming tools haadivo N C.


fashion toniata N I.


fasten koto V EV


fat afuva N C.


fate ni N I.


father nuino V EV


father vunamo V EV


fatigue heitidi N I.


fatness afui N I.


favourite saihoki N I.


fear vandi N I.


fear vando V EV


fearfully vande ADV



fearmonger vomiso V EV

Intransitive meaning: 'to be subject of fear- or scaremongering'
fearmongering vomisa N I.

full definition: 'causing of a mass panic through fear-mongering or irresponsible handling of delicate information'
feather humatava N C.


feature eeofula N I.


federalisation tahadovi N I.


federation vunaman a tahadovi N I.


fee eveset N I.


feed hemovo V EV


feel do V EV


feel do V EV


feel hoojo V EV


feel alone diko V UEV


feel anguish kolijo V EV


feel energised nisaido V UEV


feel pain holdo V EV

unergative meaning used in intransitive sentences
feeling dihooji N I.

referring to the sense of touch
feeling di N I.


feet matta N C.


fell fuedo V EV

ergative: in intransitive sentences 'to fall', in transitive sentences 'to fell'
fell kaato V EV


female sulja N C.

for animals only
feminism ki a sehukumo N I.


fence netunifi N C.

a fence that protects for example a field of crops, or a lone home in the wilderness or at the edge of it.
fenugreek timito N C.


fertility nuani N I.

both of the soil and of animals or humans
festoon itikoma N C.


fetch sundo V EV

of something which has a known location
fetch teko V EV


fever heitidat N I.


few kiovufii DET W.

referring to only a couple (up to 3 with bigger items, 5-7 with average-sized items and roughly 10 with smaller items) wild/dangerous things, for example in a jungle
few kiovifii DET C.,I.

referring to only a couple (up to 3 with bigger items, 5-7 with average-sized items and roughly 10 with smaller items) familiar, abstract and unknown/unknowable things, but not wild/dangerous ones
field muava N C.


field of flowers saanu a ohaja N C.


fifteen thousand six hundred twenty-five evokihif NUM


base-5 equivalent of a million
rare alternate variant: evohuif, from 'evohi' + 'vuhifi'
fight vettaf N I.


fight vettafo V EV


fighter hetevimo N C.

used for 'noble' fighters defending something, rather than pillaging wealth-seekers or anything similar
fighter vettafamo N C.


filbert (uala a) miisuu N C.

more commonly known as hazelnuts. 'Uala a' means 'nut of' and is often omitted
file hotif N I.


fill onko V EV


fill onki N I.


fill uldo V EV

referring to sealing or filling gaps, holes etc.
filling onki N I.


filling onkifi N I.

referring to smaller servings or fillings
film reel desofenivo a niooni N C.


filth vikinivo N C.


fin osem N C.

referring to the fin of a fish
finally netuhe ADV



finally lilvune ADV



finance noitoti a lumo a aminif N I.


find edojo V EV


find edoja N C.

when found by chance, and not after a deliberate search
find teko V EV


find teka N C.

when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
find and accept one's place in the world ninvo V UEV


finding edoja N C.

when found by chance, and not after a deliberate search
finding teka N C.

when found after a deliberate search, not by chance
fine sand iivofi N C.

Mostly for fine beach sand, occasionally used for other kinds of dry fine sand, or even sand-like things/materials.
finely grated coconut setava N C.


finger manoja N



fingernail keus N C.


finish lomoho V EV


finish building hadeefo V EV


fire vani N I.


fire van N W.


fireplace dahevan N C.


firewood tisivo N C.


first li vuniti ADV



first aid udimi a vui N I.


first aid kit udimivo a vui N C.


fish fenoo V EV


fish fenoi N C.

edible saltwater fish only
Cognate with NGU 'pengoi' (fish)
fish tousaava N C.

any kind of fish, including those not eaten. Slightly poetic, but still commonly used in neutral speech.
fisher fenoomo N C.


fisher hememo N C.


fit saadi N I.

Only used for emotions and similar.
five kiif NUM



fix ilamdo V EV


fixate koto V EV


flame tisa N C.


flank navo V EV


flash liiko V UEV

not used for lightning, but e.g. for flashing lights
flash fofeo liik V UEV

only used for the flashing of lightning
flash liik N W.


flatbread kelamafi N C.


flatness kelami N I.


flavour nemi N I.

ergative
flavour nemivo V EV


flee noheo V UEV


flesh take N C.


flinch desofenofi N C.


flinch desofenofo V UEV


flipside sivi N I.

as opposed to the front, including of abstract/immaterial things/ideas
flirt tuko V EV

requires no adpositions
float umto V EV

used in intransitive sentences
flood ejosaavo V EV


flood ejosaavat N W.

for large, disastrous floods
flood ejosaava N C.


floor uvata N C.

'uvatane' is a less common, more archaic version
florist ohajamo N C.


flour nea N C.

especially coconut flour if not explicitly stated otherwise
flourish oeedovo V UEV


flow taha N C.


flow tahoo V UEV


flower ohaja N C.

Not the part of a plant that blossoms, the plant itself.
flower ulo N C.


flower garden ohajamon N C.

for flower gardens
fluid tahava N C.


flute huusa N C.


fly huuvafi N C.


fly sanuhuuto V EV


fly huto V UEV


foam doose N C.


focus elkoo V EV


fog jedu N C.


follow todehento V EV


follow tonto V EV


follow a hunch dekimido V UEV

Synonymous with 'be kind, understanding' in Jutean, since altruism and kindness are seen as among the most important instincts necessary for survival.

So 'to listen to your heart/instincts' is also understood as 'being understanding (of your heart as well as the one of other people)' and by extension as 'being kind'.
followed by todentije ADP


alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
following todentije ADV


alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
following todentiji N I.


food heme N C.


food allocation point hemen N C.


food organiser hememo N C.


food part hemeva N C.


foot matta N



footpath matton N C.


for doti ADP



for nuhe C



for hokedo ADP



for nuhe ADP



for nuhe ADP



for example masijive ADV



for sure se ADV
DATD

for sure ildese ADV



for the purpose of li ADP



force lumoo V EV


force lumo N I.


force noito V EV


force of nature lumovan N W.


forced labour hotuvoniti N I.


forcefully lumomate ADV



forehead vaka N C.


foreignness sainahai N I.


foresight johanni N I.


forest oeedova N C.

used for calmer and/or more 'tamed' forests, not for the rainforests in jungles
forever kedoonif ADV



forget tataimo V EV

ergative
forgive mohomoo V EV


form mati N I.


form matio V EV


forward te ADV



foster vuammo V EV


fosterer vuammo N C.

For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
fosterer sehukumo N C.


found juto V EV


foundation oeni N I.


foundation oena N C.


fountain sundoha N C.

e.g. a water fountain or spring, both constructed and natural ones
four du NUM



freaking vikinive ADV


also used as an interjection
free foo V EV


free day vuhami N I.

Lexember 25
free will saimohi a foi N I.


freedom foi N I.

physical freedom, as for example the freedom to roam, or the lack of (metaphorical) chains that would prevent you from doing that
freeze haadalfano V EV


frequency anti N I.


freshen lottuvo V EV


freshness lottu N I.


friend udimimo N C.

good friend = 'udimimo a haad' (literally 'a big friend')
friendship udimimi N I.


frighten vandovo V EV


frightening vandovi N I.


frightening thing vandovu N W.


frolic sevo V UEV


from at ADP


for locations, e.g. 'from somewhere'
from a ADP


When referring to the originator/possessor of a thing/idea/concept, such as in 'a gift from them'.
Not in the sense of 'being made of something', as for example in 'a plane made from paper'.
Neither when referring to a location, like 'I went from here to there'.
from odu ADP W.

referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)
from oda ADP C.

referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)
from odi ADP I.

referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)
from ... on une ADP



front jofi N I.


frontier netu N W.

Historically, the wilderness (rainforest) was the natural border of the Jutean villages.
frown kiovaho V UEV

in intransitive sentences only
fruit kama N C.


fruit juice tahakama N C.


fulfil lo V EV


fulfil lovo V EV


fulfilment lomohi N I.


fulfilment lovi a nide N I.

strong liking, something that you think fulfills or significantly improves your life
fulfilment lovi N I.

especially used to talk about the fulfillment of the potential of someone or something
fulfilment uvulvi N I.

Also used in the sense of 'state of being fulfilling'.
fullness onki N I.


fully onke ADV



function eeho V EV

it works like a non-auxiliary variant of 'eeo'
fund oeno N EV


fundament oeni N I.


fundamentalism Kiat a oeni N I.


funny thing mello N I.


fur valanka N C.


furthermore mekohe C



futility vili N I.


future doonati N I.

Variant: donaati, reflects the changed pronunciation in some dialects
gaiety mello N I.


galaxy sedame a vuhifi N W.


gall enuu N C.

sometimes also called 'tahava a keake' or 'liquid of liver'
gallbladder enuun N C.


game iduhi N I.


game maami N I.


garden netuadovan N C.

For the most common type of gardens, having flowers as well as some vegetable crops, bushes etc.
garden netuadovo V EV


gardener ohajamo N C.

for flower gardens
gardener netuadova N C.

for gardens in general and vegetable/herb gardens in particular
garlic vinke N C.

referring to the spice, not the plant
gas huulu N W.

gaseous state of something that usually is not a gas
gasp meto V UEV


gasp! metto I



gather feo V EV

rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
gather uiso V EV


gatherer hememo N C.


gem vatahaji N C.

some dialects might shorten this to 'vataaji' or 'vatooji'
generally efife ADV



generation dotohaaf N



generosity saihonui N I.


geology nesanifola N I.


germinate luuso V UEV

'to sprout something' would be translated with 'matio' (to form)
gerund hi AFF


used for example in relative clauses
('I am the light of bringing dawn' instead of 'I am the light that brings dawn')
get teko V EV


get sundo V EV

of something which has a known location
get evoto V EV


get away with noheo V UEV


get back evotilo V EV


get into tino V EV

for nationstates, digital things and other abstract concepts
get rid of tavuheo V EV

when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
get to know fuumo V EV


geyser sundohaat N W.


gg aau ABB



gift nui N I.

for abstract/immaterial gifts, like for example a good education. Anything you can't physically touch.
giganticness haadat N I.


gill tomva N C.

referring to the organ used to breathe by e.g. fish
give nuo V EV


give a speech tahio V UEV


give away hokehuto ... nuhe V EV

that which is given or traded away or sold becomes the direct object, the trade partner or partners the indirect object preceded by 'nuhe' (benefactive for) or alternatively 'li' (to, towards)
give away nuuheo V EV

not used when talking about giving away anything in a trade, but for those giveaways that don't involve any commercial activity or direct (quid pro quo) exchange
give away hokedo V EV


give birth vuno V EV

ergative verb
give birth nuino V EV


give up sivio ... eteve V EV


give up toho V EV


give way hoko teheko V EV


give weight to vuato li V EV


giver nua N C.

usually referring to inanimate things, something that e.g. gives (or is supposed to give) you wealth, power (e.g. money) or similar. Can sometimes also be used for immaterial items (e.g. an idea as a 'giver' of hope).

Mostly used in combination with another word explaining that which is being given, e.g. 'nua a lumo' ('giver of power/wealth)
giving nui N I.


glacier hesonka N W.


gladness ilvuati N I.


glance hujifi N I.


gland nuatahava N C.


glass dovauhi N C.


glasses jivo N C.


gleam unvo V UEV


gleam hosoi N I.


gleam hoso V UEV


glide honovo V UEV


glimpse hujifi N I.


glint hoso V UEV


glitter hosoi N I.


glitter hoso V UEV


glitter unvo V UEV


globalisation savanhuohi N I.


globalise savanhuo V EV


glory ukainat N I.


glow voono V EV

Not used for the sun, but for the moon and other astral bodies as well as other smaller light sources (like a torch or flashlight) that don't create light so bright it makes the night as bright as day.
glow vooni N I.


glue tahadovivo N C.


glue tahadovo V EV

ergative
go to V UEV


go away from toho V EV


go back toheno V M

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to go back to' is 'toheno li'.
go back ilto V UEV


go fast himmino V UEV

to go as fast as a rocket (literally or metaphorically)
go out tafenavo V UEV


go through a red light deo vuhiti a jevani V T


goal tefi N I.


goal sea N C.


goal sei N I.


goalkeeper ofomo N C.


god vunamat N C.


good uke N I.


good behaviour uke N I.


good decision vuatuki N I.


good person vuhamo N C.

full definition: 'a person that spreads (metaphorically) spreads sunlight through good deeds, and/or is always in a bright mood in a way that is contagious'
good treatment nuluhi N I.

good brotherly/sisterly/'siblingly' treatment, looking after someone
good wishes hauki N I.


goodbye joot I
SLNG
very informal, sometimes with 'fa' (inclusive we) added at the end
goodbye ohot ni uke I
DATD
dated, but still used sometimes in very formal settings
goodbye joot hut I
CASL
often shortened to 'jootut', sometimes with 'fa' (inclusive we) added at the end
goodbye ohot nahi I
HUMB
somewhat formal
goodness uke N I.


government vunamoeni N I.


governor vunamoena N C.


grab umo V EV


grain sik N C.

mostly used for rice and corn, the more commonly used grains on Jute, other ones are called 'sikahai' ('grain of/from outside')
grain sikahai N C.

for less common/well known grains on Jute, i.e. everything that isn't rice or corn
grammar vaaki a tahivi N I.


grandparent vunavunam N C.


grant nuo V EV


graph hotiva N I.


grasp fumefo V EV

referring to facts and topics or to situations and problems
grass lua N C.


grate seko V EV


grated food seka N C.


gravel vuatafi N C.


gravel seku N C.

for fine gravel only
gravel sekuta N C.

Coarse/medium gravel, not fine gravel.
gravity lumemtoo N I.


greatness hukea N I.


green jehaadufi N


Also used for greenish blues, turquoise, cyan etc. Light blue/green use 'white', very dark blue/green use 'black'.
greet saimehao V EV


greeting saimehai N I.


grin jaafuko ... ehe hosoma V UEV


grin like a cheshire cat jaafuko ... ehe hosoma PHR UEV


grind neo V EV


ground uuva N C.


ground oena N C.

The ground outside, that is, the soil you walk on in a forest, for example.
ground oeno V EV

When talking about the (static) foundation of something like a house or other building, rather than the cultural or similar foundation of something more abstract/immaterial, like a way of life.
group kahana N C.


group ite N I.


grove dovan N C.

used for calmer and/or more 'tamed' small forests, not for the rainforests in jungles
grove dovun N W.

used for groves with wild, untouched or untamed trees
grow haado V EV


grow haado V EV


grow up donosano V UEV

When used with subjunctive/future adverbs
growth tovivi N I.

for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
growth haadu N W.

used for growth happening in the wilderness, especially rainforests, and for overgrowing of previously cultivated or bare places.
growth haadi N I.


guard netumo N C.


guard netumoo V EV


guardedness havandi N I.

A guardedness that can be full of anxiety and/or fear, as for example what you can feel in a jungle where everything might be trying to kill you
guardedness havandifi N I.

less anxious, 'calmer' guardedness
guide tonaho V EV


gulf uldat N W.

referring to large bays
gun senil N C.


gunpowder senilvi N C.


gut feeling sainudi N I.


guts oeka N C.


habit hi N I.

For conscious, deliberate habits, not the ones that could be described with
'something that someone can't help but do'
habit anti N I.

All habits, including the undesirable and/or unconscious ones.
habitat nanu N W.


habitually anti ADV



habitually do asejo V EV


habitually do amotilo V EV


hair loja N C.


half valeke N I.


hallucination ilhavani a saini N I.


halo vuhatofa N C.


hamlet fefon N



hammer kuumivo N C.


hammer kummo V EV


hand mana N C.


hand over nokeko V EV

in ceremonies etc.
handful mane N


referring in particular to quantity, or used with uncountable nouns like 'substance'
handle femmo N C.


handle mano V EV


hang around uhaso V UEV


hang up nuuheo sinivoti V T


happen asijo V UEV


happening aseji N I.


happily aninde ADV



happiness anindi N I.


happy person vuhamo N C.

full definition: 'a person that spreads (metaphorically) spreads sunlight through good deeds, and/or is always in a bright mood in a way that is contagious'
harbour saava a nonat ABB C.

for ships
hardly ilanti ADV



hardly ever ilanti ADV



harmlessness vanal N I.


harmoniousness mohomi N I.

'harmony' in a more religious or holy sense
harmonise mohomoo V EV


harmony tesohafe N I.

musical harmony
harmony mohomo N I.


harmony mohomo N I.


harrow feivo N C.


harshness kiova N I.


harvest fefo V EV


harvest uisa N C.

used mostly for gathered and foraged food, not limited to mushrooms but also including e.g. fruit, nuts etc., anything not farmed on fields or in gardens
hat tofajota N C.

rare variant: ejotofa
hate vettido V EV


hate vettidi N I.


hate vetti N I.

when used synonymously with 'violence' and/or when it is the motive/cause for violence
hate vetto V EV

more used for hating that also manifests in some kind of violence
have oho V UEV HUMB
Only used sometimes when the 'humble/respectful' register would be appropriate, not used in normal speech.
have a gut feeling saino V UEV


have space daho V IT

used in intransitive sentences
have to expect teho V EV


hawking radiation tisoi a hemovuhifi N I.


haze sevene N C.


he/she/it/etc ehi P I.

Abstract 'it'
he/she/it/etc la P


he/she (not it)
he/she/it/etc aha P C.

Common 'it'
he/she/it/etc uvu P


for animate beings other than humans or other sapient living beings, such as animals or plants
he/she/it/etc ohu P W.

Wilderness 'it'
head toofa N C.


heal nusaifo V EV


healer nusaifomo N C.


health nisaif N I.


health uke N I.

referring to good health
healthiness nisaidi N I.


hear deko V EV

rare variant: 'eko'
hearing deki N I.


heart midu N C.


heart attack ilami a midu N I.


heat vani N I.


heat vanio V EV


heater vailivani N C.

alternatively 'vanitunvaili', if it's necessary to be more precise, with 'tun' meaning 'room'.
heating vanihi N I.


heaven saanuhi N I.


heaviness vuati N I.


heed dekiodo ude V EV


height dovi N I.


hell ilvunimon N I.

see notes for 'ilvunimo' (devil)
hello nojanuke I



hello hajua I
SLNG CIT
hello noe I


less informal than 'vai' (hey), largely neutral between people of the same or similar age, but still markedly informal between people of very different age
hello nonuko I



help udimo V EV

The persons, beings or things being helped are the direct object, the activities or things that the help is supporting are usually the oblique object (unless a non-default trigger is used)
help udimi N I.


helper udimimo N C.


helpfulness sehuki N I.


hence ivusaie C



herbivore hemaadova N C.


herd jufu N W.

for wild animals only
here lihen ADV



here heni N I.


here hen ADV



here and now henuhe ADV



hero ukainimo N C.


hesitate sahaamo V EV

Meaning when used in intransitive sentences.
hey dekki I

CIT
hey dek I
CASL
Very casual, used in messaging or by young people.
hey vai I
CASL

hidden agenda miki N I.


hidden art vamejoti N I.


hide jotavo V EV

some dialects would pronounce it 'jottavo'
hideout ejota N C.


high priest vamejotimo N C.


high-rise dovi a mihonohi N C.

a tall building with many apartments in it, not an office block or a smaller apartment building
hike havansoti N I.


hill setu N C.


hint vunoji N I.


hipster sainaimo N C.


history tahif N I.


hit vetta N I.


hit seo V EV


hit hevo V EV


hit sei N I.


hit vetto V EV


hither lihen ADV



hobbit saumifi N C.


hoe oenavivo N C.

referring to the farming tool that is used to create rows in a field
hold soo V EV


hold ho V EV

referring to 'holding a celebration, rite etc.'
hold back soheno V EV


hold on to homano V EV


hold someone accountable amivoo V EV


hole tuloho V EV


hole tukivu a haad N W.

naturally formed hole or hollow depression in the ground, wood or rock that is of a larger size
hole tuloha N C.


holiday vuhatasi N I.

a holiday commemorating a specific event
holiday vuhat N I.


holiness mohomi N I.


hollowness tulu N I.


home tane ADV


for dynamic verbs, e.g. 'to go home'.

Word changes depending on whose home is being talked about, with the first syllable 'ta' ('I') being replaced by the appropriate pronoun, e.g. to 'nane' (your [sg.]home), 'lane' (their [sg.] home] or 'fane' (our [incl.] home)
home tan N


Word changes depending on whose home is being talked about, with the 'ta' ('I') personal pronoun being changed to the appropriate one. The variations are:

Singular:
'tan' (my home), 'nan' (your home), 'lan' (their home), 'uvun' (animal's/plant's home)

Plural:
'fanalne' ('our home', excluding a single person)
'fanafalne' ('our home', excluding several persons)
'fafalne' ('our home' excluding a group)
'nafen' ('your home'), 'lafen' ('their home')

Collective:
'fan', or 'fana' ('home of us all'),
'fanne' ('your all's home')
'falne' ('home of them all')
'uvufen' (rare, 'home of all a plant/animal or the plants/animals)
home jute N C.

Not a private home, noun referring to the home of the entire population.
homeland vunaman N C.


honesty meoduki N I.


honour ukaini N I.


honour ukaino V EV


hoodie muuvit N C.


hope huvo V UEV

Requires 'a' (of, about) or 'nuhe' (for) + oblique object.
hope huvi N I.

Lexember 5, 2015
hopefully huve ADV



hopelessly huvel ADV



horn haja N W.


horse mike N C.


hortative f AFF


in some texts '-fe' is used instead
hospital mudason N C.


hostility vetti N I.

when used synonymously with 'violence' and/or when it is the motive/cause for violence
hotel dahon N C.


hour vuhava N I.


house noni N I.

Jutean families traditionally tended to live a lot in the same place and didn't move around much.
house mihonon N C.


household jufin N C.


housewall mihoneta N C.


hover honovo V UEV

Takes the preposition 'ove' (on top of, over, above)
hovercraft vailita a honovohi N C.


how haatoni P



how are you? hajua I
SLNG CIT
however mojuhu C



hug uvado V EV


hug uvada N C.


hug liking uvadi N I.

Lexember 2, 2015
hug need teuvadi N I.

Lexember 2, 2015
hum asuuo V UEV

often pronounced [azu:]
human sauma N C.


human right hokonoeni N I.


human right hokoni a sauma N I.


humidity unosifi N I.


humility ukainijat N I.


humour melli N I.


humus oenava N C.


hunger muvee N C.


hunt toovao V EV


hunt toovai N I.


hunt down ufeno V EV


hunter toovaimo N C.


hurricane fivou N W.


hurry up vuo V UEV

To mean 'hurry up with something' the verb describing the process needs to follow 'vuo' directly instead of appearing in a preposition + gerund construction as an oblique object. E.g.: 'Eeo vuo haado na faliti he' (Now you are able to hurry up growing rice)
hurt vetto V EV


hurtle tuuvo vue V EV

used if the action is intentional
hurtle tuuvo ilike V EV

used if the action is intentional
hurtle tuuvo ilamive V EV

used if the action is unintentional or happening uncontrolled
husk fudu N W.

the hard outer shell of some fruits such as coconuts
hydrodynamics tonesani a saa N I.


hyperspace deevuhifin N I.

not referring to the mathematical concept, only to the one described in science-fiction
hypnosis noituvali N I.


hypnotise noito ... uuvale V EV

Ellipsis gets replaced by the subject and, where applicable, the object
hypnotist noituvalimo N C.


i ta P



i da P
CASL CIT
i don't know e I


often accompanied by a shrug
ice haadalfani N W.


idea satoni N I.


ideal juti N I.

a national ideal to aspire to, either a particular set of ethics, a way of living or some standard to be reached
ideally jutihe ADV



identifier nojivi N I.

not physical labels, but identifying terms
identify asosino V EV


ideology kiat N I.

especially for ideologies that can encompass many or almost all parts of life, rather than only a specific part
ideology ki N I.

especially for these that are more specific to a topic or similar, and are less of a 'way of life'
idiot ilajohimo I



idiot ilajohimo N C.


idol ukainimo N C.


if sahane C



ignorance ilnesani N I.

Specifically, not knowing something, not being ignorant in general.
ignorance ilajeohi N I.

General ignorance, especially for those who think they know a lot, but are sorely mistaken, or for those who think that 'knowing things' is not as useful as a fist.
The 'annoying' kind of ignorance, often defying attempts at correction/education.
ignore deo V EV


illegally ilhoke ADV



illness tuved N I.


illness ilikimat N I.


illuminate voono V EV

Not used for the sun, but for the moon and other astral bodies as well as other smaller light sources (like a torch or flashlight) that don't create light so bright it makes the night as bright as day.
illusion ilhavani N I.


image nioona N C.


imagination saihodi N I.


imagine saihodo V EV


imagined thing saihodi N I.


immediate family jufita N C.

'jufita' literally means 'my (immediate) family'.

The 'ta' personal pronoun is acting as a suffix denoting relationship here and can be replaced by any other personal pronoun: 'jufina' (your [singular] (immediate) family), 'jufifa' (our (all) immediate family/families) etc.
immediate future tense vue ADV



immediately vue ADV



impale tiko V EV


impale tikaveto V EV

with a spear or arrow
imperfect marker ilomohe ADV


aspect particle
implication miki N I.


imply mikio V EV


import vattitane N I.


importance hiit N I.


impregnate nuino V EV


impression huji N I.


imprison daho V T

only used in transitive sentences
imprison netuno V EV


in an ADP C.

un: W. gender version of 'an' when referring to something with the W. gender
in in ADP I.


in un ADP W.

for 'wild' location such as a jungle, an ocean or anything else with the 'wilderness' gender
in fact se ADV



in front of ajofane ADP



in general efife ADV



in many places kenone ADV



in order to li ADP



in place of ininve ADP



in that case inaseje ADV



in the future in doonati ADV


no declination, since it's a fixed phrase, alternatively, 'ido' instead of 'in' can be used, but is rare.
in the future dona ADV
ARCH
Found here: https://redd.it/3oqtw9
in vain hokedo ilvo PHR



inability ileehi N I.


include hedotano V EV


include hedotano V EV


including ude hedotanohi a ADP



incompatibility etohei N I.


incorrectly iltavane ADV



incorrectness iltavani N I.


increase tovo V UEV


increase tovivi N I.

mostly for amounts, numbers and other abstract things
increase rapidly oeedovo V UEV


increasingly tove ADV



independent from foije ADP



independently foije ADV



individual tonija N I.


indoctrinate hotilvuho V EV


indulge vikinivato V EV


indulgence vikinivat N I.


industrialisation loomivi N I.


industrialise loomivo V EV


industry loomi N C.

referring only to modern, mechanized industry
infant nuinafi N C.


infect ijoto V IT,UEV

only in intransitive sentences, only with inanimate subjects
infect ijotado V EV

used when the target is sapient and/or animate, with the illness or that with which the target is infected with a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
infect ijotido V EV

used when the target (a thing or a place) of the infection (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract, e.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time as well anything unknown (including material things), e.g. an unknown place, with the illness or that with which the target is infected with a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
infection ijoti N I.

Can be used e.g. with the verb 'nuo' (to give), 'evoto' (to receive) and 'ofo' (to catch, here involuntarily)
infer ilejoto V EV


infiniteness kedonifi N I.

Only used when talking about time.
information dekiva N I.


ingredient hemeva N C.


inhale temosao V EV


inhumation unsi ude matede N I.

burials featuring the entire, uncremated body being buried in the ground
initiation novi N I.


initiation rite vamejoti N I.


injure vettefo V EV


injury vettefa N C.


injustice doohu N I.


ink najasee N C.


inn udimon N C.


insect felta N C.


inside nuhu ADP W.

Used with static verbs, and not for buildings
inside naha ADP C.

Used with static verbs and not when talking about buildings.
inside nadefa ADV


Use when talking about buildings
inside tune ADP W.

Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tune).

For wilderness-related things or places.
inside tane ADP C.

Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tane)

For places/things that aren't buildings, are known, exist physically and aren't related to the wilderness.
inside nadefa ADP


Use with stative verbs, for example 'to stay inside' (hono ... nadefa)

For buildings.
inside tune ADV W.

for wilderness-related things or places
inside nihe ADP I.

Used with static verbs.
inside nadefi N I.

For buildings.
inside tine ADP I.

Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tine).

For unknown places/things that aren't related to the wilderness and/or are abstract/immaterial
inspiring nature sound tesahuvu N W.

Lexember 5, 2015

Full definition: 'the sound of a fresh breeze, the wild sea or birds that once again show you how beautiful life is and make you regain hope in a better future'
install olumo V EV

not for computer programs or electronic devices, only for things like a political system, social order, or any other kind of system or institution in that system (like a government)
instance aseji N I.


instance doonava N I.

This time: idoonava ji (from ido doonava (a) ji)
Two times: ido doonavade a leke
Next time: in doonava a todehentohi/
doonava todentohije

('dooniva' is a rare variant)
instead ininve ADV



instead of ininve ADP



instinct sainu N W.


instinct haju N W.


institute olumo V EV

for more general things, like a political system, social order, or any other kind of system or institution in that system (like a government)
institute fuumon N C.


instruction donosanohi N I.


instruction manual hotif a donosanohi N C.


instructions najaseli N I.

on a computer screen or similar
instructor donosanimo N C.

referring to instructors giving practical knowledge, for a particular non-scholarly profession (craftmanship, other manual labor, guarding), for life, a journey or anything like that
insult tahivano V EV


insurance nutahuki N I.


insure nutahuko V EV


integrate jutio V EV


integration jutiohi N I.


intellect hajee N I.


intelligence hajeohi N I.


interest kimko N I.


interest saimohaa N I.


interior nadefi N I.


interior hea N I.

referring to the interior (or backcountry) of a land or larger place
international union mihonafi N I.


internet tovahuuvan N I.


interrupt ilvutio V EV


intimidation haada N I.

used in some contexts when talking about a person or creature, sometimes also other things deemed intimidating due to their sheer size, such as a mountain.
into tane ADP C.

Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tane).

For places/things that aren't buildings, are known, exist physically and aren't related to the wilderness.
into tine ADP I.

Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go into' (to ... tine).

For unknown places/things that aren't related to the wilderness and/or are abstract/immaterial
into tune ADP W.

Used with dynamic, not stative verbs, for example 'go inside' (to ... tune).

For wilderness-related things or places.
intuition haju N W.


intuitively ude hajude ADV



invade vetafamoo V EV


invade fuedoho V EV


invader vettafamo N C.

A less 'noble' warrior fighting just for the sake of it or for wealth and/or prestige, often used for invaders.
invasion vettafami N I.


invent olumoho V EV


involve hedotano V EV


iridescent light vuhi a johi haad N I.


iron sitiliva N C.


iron ore eva a sitiliva N C.


irresponsible action vomisa N I.

full definition: 'causing of a mass panic through fear-mongering or irresponsible handling of delicate information'
island kuse N C.

particularly, but not exclusively, used to refer to larger islands
island saaval N C.


isn't it? emal I



issue haa N I.


it's over deo efi PHR



jade esto N C.


jagged rock that tears up boats vuatavan N W.


jam unosi a kama N C.

referring to the fruit preserve
jar uilivo N C.


jaw oneka N C.


jealousy netumiat N I.

jealousy as in overprotectiveness, especially in relationships
job amini N I.


job ami N I.


jocularity mello N I.


join todehento V EV

especially used to talk about joining someone's journey, travels or similar
joke mello V EV

intransitive/unergative meaning: 'be funny, a joke or a prank'
joke melliva N I.


journey letaf N I.


journey letafo V UEV


judge nuo ... vuatiti V EV


judge mohomonamo N C.

judge at a juridical court
juice eevuhu N C.

Any kind of juice.
jump ijotohe V UEV

the 'he' is omitted if the word is preceded by 'eeo' or 'hokono', if the jumping is involuntary or with beings or things that rely on something else for necessary movement (e.g. parasites, disease agents, spores or electricity, information, radio waves)
jump on ijotado V EV

used with sapient and/or animate beings only, with what is being thrown is an oblique object preceded by an 'ude' (with)
jungle van N W.


jungle oeedovu N W.


junk eeovola N C.

Literally 'that which can't be used'
just netie ADV



just hedonite ADV



just ikehe ADV



just now hedonite ADV



justice vuatuki N I.


justness vuatuki N I.


jute jute N C.


Jute jute PPR



jute leaves ilada N C.

referring to fried/sautéd jute leaves
jute leaves kaseta N C.

uncooked ones
kaolinite vatasoava N W.


kayak akela N C.


keep ho V EV


keep alive honijo V EV


keep away hetevo V EV


keep house jufino V EV


keep sth. going noito to V EV

the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English
keeping hi N I.


kerchief jodeku N C.

sometimes called 'ejotadeku' in older forms of the language
ketchup voniu N C.


key tinivo N C.


kick lut N I.


kick luto V EV


kick out lutoheo V EV


kidnap hedo V EV

when talking about children, animals under someone's care or humans in general.
kidney senma N C.


kill ilvunino V EV

requires an object, otherwise it means 'to die'
kill kiovono V EV


kind ilehi N I.

literally 'unlikeness'
kind of tonije ADV



kind of ehe ADV
CASL
meaning 'kind of' as in 'more or less', or 'somewhat', rather than 'in a (certain/weird/unique) way', for which only 'tonije' would be used.

Put at the end of a sentence, separated by a comma in writing.
kindergarten udimuinan N C.


kindness sehuki N I.


kindness dekimidu N I.


king vunam a efi a vunamanede N C.

used mostly in translated stories, sometimes also when talking about the history of other nations, rarely if ever used for any present ruler (with exceptions)
king hotuvimo N C.

Particularly for those kings ruling unjustly or those with no legitimized rule, sometimes used polemically for all
king vunam a efi a vunamanede N C.

used mostly in translated stories, sometimes also when talking about the history of other nations, rarely if ever used for any present ruler (with exceptions)
kingdom hotuvimon N C.


kiss susa N C.


kiss suso V EV


kitchen favon N C.

secondary meaning, especially used for smaller private kitchens
kitchen tunafavo N C.

most commonly used, for all kinds of kitchens
kitchen hemon N C.

Secondary meaning, sometimes used for (private) kitchens that also serve as dining rooms
kitten nijauvafi N C.

alternate form: 'nijaufi' (equivalent to 'kitty')
kiwifruit hesohama N



knee alve N C.


knife kiovivo N C.


knock out ilvuho V EV


knot kahana N C.


know nesano V EV


know muldo V EV


know how to eeo V UEV


knowledge nesani N I.


label nojivi N I.

not physical labels, but identifying terms
labyrinth netuadovan a iliki N C.


lace sikulu N C.


lack ilni N I.

'lack' as in 'absence', for example in 'notice the lack of sounds here'
lack ilnio V EV

'lack' as in 'be absent', not 'be insufficient', so not implying any kind of need for that absence to be changed.
lack loloi N I.

'lack' as in 'shortcoming', mostly, but not exclusively in amount. 'We're experiencing a lack of skilled labor/important resources/etc.'
lack lolo V UEV

'lack' as in 'not have enough, have insufficient of'.
lack of organisation mahavi N I.

also referring to things like 'loose papers laying around on the floor, sign of too much bureaucracy'

(Lexember 16 2016)
lack time loldoono V UEV


lament usolo V UEV


lamentation usoli N I.


lamp vuhefefa N C.


land saaval N C.

mostly reserved for islands
land seo V EV


land oena N C.


land havan N C.

if the land is mostly wilderness, this can be used (for example with Jute)
land net N C.

Coastal lands
land of oee AFF


denotes a bigger place on land than the -n/-an suffix, that is, more an area than a spot

Spoken as two syllables, used as a prefix.
landfill eeovolan N C.


language tahivi N I.


lantern vuhefefa N C.


lap ooni N I.


laptop lisenkaun a vattohi N C.
CIT
laptop vailidekiva a vattohi N C.


lard afuva a musuu N C.

any kind of spreadable fat or fat-based spreads, often not counting butter
laser kulmas N I.


last netuhe DET


after the noun it is giving a reference to, and referring to the final one only, not the most recent one
lastly netuhe ADV



late in doniti oos ADV



later lione ADV



laugh veeho V EV

Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
laughter veehi N I.


launch novi N I.

Has the meaning of 'launch, initiate', not 'create, make' (which would be 'vuno')

Used for example when talking about starting a new (team-)project or club.
launch novo V EV

Used in the sense of 'to start something' like a project or organization, but not used for traditional things like a family.
lava kue N W.


law kiasaimake N I.


lawyer udimohomoo N C.


lay maso V EV


lay down maso V EV


lay eggs fivo V EV


lay on top masovo V EV


lay weight on vuato li V EV


laziness feetedi N I.


lead noito V EV


lead noito V EV


leaf dusa N W.

referring specifically to the thinner leaves of some trees like Dracaena
leaf ikomu N W.

for leafs of jungle trees or other 'wild' plants
leaf ikoma N C.

for trees and plant outside of the jungle or other 'wild' places
leaflet najasela N C.


league mihonafi N I.


lean sehuko V EV

uses no preposition unlike the English equivalent 'lean over'or 'lean at'
learn noitosano V EV

intransitive sentences only, for scholarly knowledge/formal education. 'Learn about' would be 'noitosano a' for more academic knowledge, or 'noitosano li' for skills.
learn about fuumo V T

not used in this sense in intransitive sentences.
leave noheo V UEV


leave toho V EV


leave ajar fofeo V EV


leave somebody alone iko V EV


lecture ivusa N I.

Academic, not a reproof done by parents/other guardians.
left udomi N I.


left udome ADV


As right is the dominant side for most people, the left can be seen as the 'supporting' side
left udomi N I.


leg solka N C.


legally hoke ADV



legend tahi a ejoti N I.


length kilita N I.

for spatial lengths only
lengthen kilito V EV


less usivu DET



less usivu ADV



let nuo V EV

'let' as in 'to give, grant, render possible', 'let' as in 'to consent to, to not obstruct' would be 'oso'
let oso V EV


let oso V EV

'let' as in 'to consent to, to not obstruct'. 'Let' as in 'to give, grant, render possible' would be 'nuo'
let power increase nulumo V EV


letter hotif N C.


levy noito nuokeda V UEV

that which is taxed is preceded by a 'nuhe' (for) and takes the oblique case
library tunahotif N C.


library tunahotif N C.


licence foskajo N I.


license foskajo V EV


lie maso V EV


lie nuo ... iltavaniti V EV

As with 'nuo tavaniti':

'A subject is not mandatory, if a subject is missing, the sentence reads 'a/the [lie] is told', but the 'ti' indirect case marking suffix needs to be omitted in that case.'
lie around uhaso V UEV


lie down maso tuuve V EV


life sife PPR I.

'Life' on Earth in general, rather than a particular life or just human lives, either as an abstract entity as in 'Life, uh, finds a way' or when referring to all that which lives in the environment.

Sometimes overlaps with 'ni', which can also be a general term, but usually either describes a particular life, human lives in general (especially in philosophical or psychological contexts), or that which distinguishes living beings from that which is inanimate.
life ni N I.


life sife N I.

'Life' on Earth in general, rather than a particular life or just human lives, either as an abstract entity as in 'Life, uh, finds a way' or when referring to all that which lives in the environment.

Sometimes overlaps with 'ni', which can also be a general term, but usually either describes a particular life, human lives in general (especially in philosophical or psychological contexts), or that which distinguishes living beings from that which is inanimate.
life nesatilaf N I. POET
For most Juteans, memories aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

See also note at 'nesatilaf' (memory [ability])
lifeform va N C.

in biology-related compounds (like 'nova' animal or 'haadova' plant) or when talking about similar topics only
lifeline umti N I.


lifetime nesatilaf N I.

For most Juteans, memories aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

See also note at 'nesatilaf' (memory [ability])
lift ilvuato V EV


lift into air kolo V EV

used for storms or similar, not for humans
ligament kaana a vutamat N C.


light tisefo V EV


light tisefo V EV

a candle, torch etc.
light vuhi N I.


light vuhi N I.


light colour johi a haad avuhi N I.

johi a haad avuhi: a light, pale color
johi a haada avuhi: a lighter (more whitish) color
light source vuhefefa N C.


light wave saavuhi N I.

Since talking about light waves isn't really common outside of scientific discussions, and since they (usually) can't directly be seen with the naked eye, the word has the immaterial/abstract gender, since it's like an abstract concept to most people.
lighten vuhefo V EV

used for deliberate lightening done by animate beings
lighten vuho V EV

only used with inanimate objects
lightening vuhefi N I.


lighthouse van a tonahi N C.


lighting vuhefefi N I.

refers to the ability of the lamps and other sources of 'artificial' light.

If something is enlightened using natural light (for example, by pushing away the curtains), 'vuhefi' is used.
lightning liik N W.


like ehe ADP



like masijive ADV



like saihoko V EV


likeness ehei N I.


likewise ehe ADV



liking lovi a nide N I.

strong liking, something that e.g. you think significantly improves your life
limit soheno V EV


limit netio V EV

Ergative
limit neti N I.


limitedly sohene ADV


usually human-enforced limits or regulations
limitlessness netili N I.


line hoti N I.


line hotio V EV


lineage vunamaf N I.


linguistics tonesani a tahivi N I.


link tahadovivo N C.

Something that physically links something (animate or inanimate) or some animals/people together
link tahadovivi N I.

A metaphorical or more immaterial link.
link tahadovo V EV

ergative
lip susivo N C. CASL

lip neda N C.


liquid tahava N C.


list ite N I.


listen deko V EV

when used in intransitive sentences
literacy eehi nuhe hotiohi N I.


literature hotiomi N I.


little by little ifi ADV


also used as a diminutive suffix
live no V UEV


live together nano V UEV


liven up vuhefo V EV


liver keake N C.


living together nanoi N I.

In Jute, this is seen as being married unless it's more than two people, or the two people don't sleep with each other in the same bed.
lizard nom N W.

larger lizards, saurians also get called the augmentative form 'nomat' sometimes
lizard kavelu N W.

usually referring to smaller lizards or reptils
load vatto V EV


load onki N I.

alternatively, also referring to a part of a load in some cases
load vatti N I.


lock up daho V T

used in transitive sentences only
logic saildesi N I.


logo nioona a sina N I.


loiter uhaso V UEV


lol veve I



loneliness ikoos N I.


long for dololo V EV


look aso V EV

Ergative verb (to look / be looked at)
look joha N I.

the look of something, e.g. 'a good look'
look hujoo V IT

'to look' as in 'They look good'
look at aso V EV


look bigger jaho V EV


look for netumio V EV


look like hedojao V UEV

like 'to be' this takes one or two nouns in the direct case, and no direct objects.
lose tefoeto V EV

only referring to cases where the speaker or the person being talked about was defeated, i.e. unless they defeated themselves, they can not be the subject of a transitive sentence with this verb.
lose ejaho V EV


lose ilevoto V EV


lose tataimo V EV

ergative
lose consciousness ilvuho V EV


lose consciousness ilevoto nisaifiti a saini V UEV


loss ejahi N I.


lot viat N I.

a literal amount of many physical things, not used much in an immaterial/abstract sense like 'not a lot could be seen'
louderness haada a lumo N I.


loudness lumo N I.


louse vafasi N C.


love lovo niti V UEV

that which is liked much is the subject, the speaker or the person being referred to can be expressed with an 'a' + oblique object construction
love diaadifo V EV


love diaadif N I.


lovelessness ilnadiadif N I.


lower respiratory tract huun N C.


lowness daavi N I.

geographical lowness, referring to altitude
loyalty udimit N I.


loyalty lejavo N I.


lumber dovevo N C.


lumberjack dovevomo N C.


luminescence vooni N I.


lung huun N C.

also referring to the surrounding parts of the lower respiratory tract
lung ekas N C.

referring to the proper lungs, not e.g. the bronchi
lynx kiseka N W.


macadamia holva N C.


macaroni sikulunea N C.


machine vahi N C.


made of ve ADP



magazine najasela N C.


magic ilmasiji N I.


magic vamejoti N I.


magician vamejotimo N C.


magnet vatasaam N C.


magnifying glass vunojahivo N C.


mail tova N C.


mail lihoto V EV


mailman hotonamo N C.


main part midi N I.


mainland oena a haada N C.


maintain vaso V EV


maize telsoo N C.


make vuno V EV


make noito V EV


make big haado V EV


make dirty vikino V EV


make important hiido V EV


make music tesaako V EV


make noise laamo V M

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)
make pottery maiko N EV


make public lihotafo V EV


make room daho V T

used in transitive sentences
make slightly wet unosifo V EV


make someone a companion todehentemoo V EV


make someone be responsible vuato ove V EV


make suffer ilikimo V EV


make tea kamo saavati V T

only for fruit infusions
making room dahi N I.


malfunction ilukivahi N I.


mammoth tuhuja N W.


manage noito to V EV

the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English
manage lomoho V EV


management noitoti N I.


management noji N I.

for management that only creates or maintains a general framework, but does not micromanage much or at all
manager noitotimo N C.


manger hemivofi N C.


mango toloka N C.


mangrove safa N W.


mangrove forest safan N W.


manner hi N I.


manners hi N I.


many haad DET



map vunojivo N C.


margarine osaseku N C.


margarine afuva a musuu N C.

any kind of spreadable fat or fat-based spreads, often not counting butter
marine animal sanova N W.

Also includes smaller ones.
mark efeni N I.

a sign or other kind of deliberate marking of something with colors, lines etc.
mark efino V EV

with colors, lines, in digital environments, in the sense of 'mark my words' or similar
mark feno V EV

e.g. a place with physical objects, like stone circles
market hemen N C.


marketer hemenamo N



marking efeni N I.

a sign or other kind of deliberate marking of something with colors, lines etc.
marriage nanoi N I.

In Jute, marriage begins when two people move together and sleep with each other for the first time. There usually is a ceremony or celebration before that, but it's not strictly necessary.
marsh vimel N W.

referring to cold or temperate wetland, not e.g. subtropical or tropical swamps or bogs
mash sedame N C.

also used for some stews, porridge and other thick foods made in a pot
masher neivo N C.


master hotuvimo N C.


mate mafemo N C.


material va N I.


materialism ki a niva N I.


mathematics tikki N I.

First counting and mathematical operations in Jute were done by laying sticks in orderly heaps and adding/taking away from them.
matter vi N I.

For atomic and sub-atomic matter.

Has the 'immaterial/abstract/unknown' gender because it's both still largely a mystery and a very abstract thing to imagine (despite it being physically existing)
matter niva N I.

For visible matter, i. e. anything you don't need an electron microscope for or similar.
matter of importance hiit N I.


mature niho V UEV


maybe noke ADV



mbignore midikenovo V EV


mead mudenkome N C.


meadow tinulen N C.


meal favefa N C.


mean sino V T

Requires a transitive sentence (a direct object)
meaning sini N I.


meaningfulness sini N I.


meanwhile hehe ADV



meat viholu N C.


media spokesperson liotafavimo N C.


medicine nusaifi N C.


medicine nusaifivo N C.


medicine nusaifi N I.


meditate moo V UEV


meditation moi N



meditation teacher moomo N C.


meet edojo V EV

to meet by chance
meet fuumo V EV


meet joo V EV

for regular meetings, especially for groups, societies etc.
meet opposition eto V UEV


meet resistance eto V UEV


melodiousness tesohafe N I.


melody todehenti N I.


melt vanio V EV


melt away felo V EV


melting vanihi N I.


member joomo N C.

of a society, party etc.
memory nesatilaf N I.

Referring to the 'place'/part of your mind that stores/has your individual memories.

For most Juteans, these aren't attached to a person, they are (a large part of) what makes up a person and their life.

Losing your memories is particularly tragic, as it's seen as losing the 'consciousness' and what holds together the defining part of your soul (which is what makes you you, an unique person) and reduces it to a largely vegetative state. Therefore, nothing short of preserving life directly is seen as more important than helping someone regain their memory and sophisticated techniques/therapies have developed over time.
memory nesatila N C.


memory loss ilehi a nesatili N I.


mental illness tuved a sainu N I.


mention memo V M

used with 'nuhe' before the person or people being addressed, and 'a' before the topic or the thing being mentioned. Can also take a direct object such as 'va' (here: part) or 'ji' abstract/immaterial form of 'this', the proximal demonstrative pronoun
menu hedadon N I.


mercenary vettafamo N C.

someone who fights for personal gains rather than any 'noble' causes or for the defense of their homeland.
merchandise nejun N C.

particularly used by those involved with international trade and commerce, less by local shopowners etc.
merge jaso V EV


message tesohova N I.


message deki N I.


message tesohovo V EV


message tovafi N I.


message nuudeko V EV


messenger tesohovamo N C.

'tesohovomo' is a variant, but has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'
messenger bag onkaana N C.

referring to backpacks or any larger sealable bag that can be worn on the back or on the shoulder with the help of ropes or strips,
metal sitiliva N C.


metaphor nuakaha N I.


metaphysics sahai a vin N I.


meteor fueda (a vuhifin) N I.


meteorology tonesani a saanuhuu N I.


method toni N I.


metropolis nonat a haadat N C.


microscope vujahivit N C.


microwave vailivanifi N C.

sometimes shortened to 'vailivani'
middle jeef N I.


midwife udimuina N C.


might lumamo N I.


military hetevi N I.

used for a defending, 'noble' military, usually the one protecting the speaker's community
military vettafamof N I.

Used to refer to the military of invading nations, who fight for wealth and/or prestige, not for defensive reasons or for any other 'noble' goal.

Sometimes 'vettafami' (attack, assault, invasion) might be used instead.
military equipment vetafivo N C.


milk eevuhu N C.

Not for breast milk.
milk akaviki N C.


milky sea saanu a vooni N W.


mill neo V EV


mill kelumvaasa N C.


miller kelumvaasamo N C.


mind saini a tine N I.

when referring specifically to someone's mind or the mind in general as distinct from a person and their body
mind saini N I.


mindscape saani N I.


minute vuhavafi N I.


mirage nankioosa N I.


misosaury etohi a kotidede N I.


misplace tataimo V EV

ergative
miss deo V EV


miss deo V EV


miss dololo V EV


mist jedu N C.


mistreat dohuo V EV


mitochondria tanematifi a lumo N C.


mix keseho V EV


mix in keseho V EV


mixture sedami N I.

if the mixture is a kind of blend of two or more things (not food), or consists of (finely or coarsely) grounded items (again, not food)
mobile phone sinivo N C.


modern times donahohit N I.


modernity hohit N I.


moistness unosifi N I.


molecule nivafi N I.


moment doonifi N I.


monarchy hotuvimon N I.


monk moinamo N C.


monkey sumke N C.

larger monkeys, apes
monkey deletu N C.

smaller monkeys, lemurs etc.
monotheism Homanuki a vunam a iki N I.


monotony tesohohi a ikihi N I.


monsoon donale N W.


monster datu N W.

Origin of the augmentative suffix 'at'
month ooni N I.

referring to the cycle a moon goes through
moon vuhataat N I.

Immaterial/abstract/unknown gender since it's in the sphere of the 'unknown', and the gender includes all generic or generally (rather) unknown or unfamiliar things that don't fall into the sphere of the 'wilderness'

Rare variant: vuhatat.
moon oone N I.

For moons that look similar to the moon of Earth.

Immaterial/abstract/unknown gender since it's in the sphere of the 'unknown', and the gender includes all generic or generally (rather) unknown or unfamiliar things that don't fall into the sphere of the 'wilderness'
Moon oone PPR



moonlight voone N I.


mora nuakilita N I.


moral ukaini N



morality nojivo a ukainide N I.


more haade ADV



morning vunuhi N I.


mortar neivon N C.


mortar va a haadefade a vuhata N C.


mosquito dusova N W.


most haadate ADV



most haadat DET



most haadat P



mother vunamo V EV


motion ti N I.


motivate vusaifo V EV


mould mellovi a hes N C.


mountain hisetu N W.


mountain range doavoa N W.


mourn usolo V EV


mourning usoli N I.


mouse isii N C.


moustache lusaneda N C.


mouth memo N C.


move teheko V EV


move toho V EV

to move a home, workplace, a capital etc.
move vuheo V EV

mostly for astral objects, sometimes for objects in space, rarely for those in the sky except for clouds
move out of the way letevo V EV


movement ki N I.

referring to social or political movements that are more about a single or couple topics, and less of an entire 'way of life'
movement teheki N I.


movie niooni N I.


much haad ADV



mud tuom N C.


muddle tuomo V EV

in the sense of 'confuse or mix up'
muddle tuomo V EV

in the sense of 'make muddy'
muddy tuomo V EV

in the sense of 'to get mud on'
muddy tuomo V EV

in the sense of 'make a mess of or create confusion'
muffin hovatuki N C.
CIT
muffin hovanefafi a utuki N C.

often shortened to 'hova-utuki'
mug kisataha N C.

carved mugs, e.g. made from wood
mug late N C.


murder kiovono V EV


murkiness lomni N C.

when used as an adjectival noun as in 'jedu a lomni' (murky fog, literally 'fog of murkiness')
muscle takelumo N C.


museum fuumon N C.


mushroom ujis N W.


music tesaaka N C.


musing sai N I.


must teato AUX UEV

rarely used
muzzle onekaat N C.

only used for larger ones, for example of bigger dogs or wild predator animals.

Lexember 5, 2015
mystery ejoti N I.


myth tahi a ejoti N I.


mythology ejotif N I.


nail hadoneta N C.


nail siifa N C.


name sino V EV


name sina N C.


namely se ADV



naming sini N I.


nanny vuammo N C.

For non-professional nurses or nannies that aren't hired, but instead do it to help someone, like a friend or family member.
nanny udimuina N C.


narrowly ialme ADV



narrowness tonetuni N I.

from 'ton' (way) + 'netun' (prison) + 'i' (immaterial/abstract suffix)
nation vunaman N I.


nation nonafat N C.

The people or the community forming a nation, not the institution/state
nationalise lihotafo V EV

intransitive meaning: 'be public (knowledge), be intended or owned by the public'
nationalism sahai a vunaman N I.


native waters saava N C.

Usually refers to the coastal waters of the original settlements of the Juteans (and then for that reason mostly only used with a construction clarifying that), but can also be extended to the native waters of other people, fish, ships etc.
natural order mohomo N I.


naturally ehe vunojomo vuhi PHR


Separated with a comma from the sentence that follows the phrase.
Often the agentive trigger marking -mo is omitted, as it's a fixed phrase with well-known meaning, which are known to lose bound morphemes in Jutean.

Used in the sense of 'of course' or 'as is/will be plainly visible', sometimes also 'obviously'.
naturalness havani N I.


nature havan N W.

referring only to the wild nature existing on the world, like the jungle, the ocean and so on
near nav ADP



nearly letoe ADV



nearness navi N I.


nebula kaneles N I.


neck eku N C.


necklace tadekufi N C.


need teo V EV


need tehi N I.

'need for' is translated as 'tehi li'
needle dalkivo N C.

mostly referring to the needle used to sew things together
negate allo V EV


negation ali N I.


negotiate tahoo ... dee V EV

The direct object is whatever is being discussed or negotiated.
negotiation tahodeehi N I.


neighbour navanmo N C.

'navammo' is a dialectal variant
nervousness sehukatidi N I.


network tahadovi N I.


neutron kesomek N I.


never idatel ADV


when talking about the future, 'dotel' for a 'never' referring to the past
never dotel ADV



newness hohi N I.


news dekihohi N I.


newsletter hotif a dekihohi N C.


newspaper hotif a dekihohi N C.


next todentii N I.


next todentije ADP


alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
Usually a postposition.
next todentije ADV


alternate, older and longer form: todentohije
next time doonava a todehentohi ADV



next time doonava todentohije ADV


spelling variant: donava todent(o)ije
niceness uke N I.


night ooniva N I.

when talking about nights in general, this is more commonly used
night oone N I.


nightstand uilanav N C.


nine kiif-du NUM



ninety-nine sema manhaadi u du-kiif du NUM



no Not al ji I
HUMB

no alal I



no one sainikil P



noise laami N I.


nomenclature vaaki a sinide N I.


non-stop ivute ADV



none ilaf P C.


none ilefi P I.

also used as a general term, when referring to both common and abstract/immaterial things or when referring to nothing in particular
noodle sikulunea N C.


noon daa N I.


nor emel C



normalcy ninvi N I.


north dolen N I.


northward lidaa ADV



nose ena N C.


nostril foana N C.


not have given in ildeso V UEV


note tesakava N C.


note efino V EV

with colors, in digital environments, in the sense of 'mark my words' or similar
nothing kiovel P C.

Used to refer to known, graspable things.
nothing kiovihel P I.

referring to abstract and unknown things (that aren't wilderness-related)
nothing kivuhel P W.

older variant 'kiovuhel' still is sometimes used, too
nothingness nuuvu N I.


nothingness kiovili N I.


notice aso V EV

Ergative verb
noun nojivi N I.


nourish nuvuhomo V EV


novel tahihaad a hotihi N C.


now hei N I.


now he ADV



number kihi N I.


number kihi N I.


nurse mudasonomo N C.

in a hospital
nurser sehukumo N C.


nursery udimuinan N C.


nurture vunamo V EV

Used when talking about bringing up children
nurture nuvuhomo V EV


nurturer nuvuhomo N C.


nurturer sehukumo N C.

Someone who raises children as their own.
nut uala N C.

Tree nuts, not including peanuts or coconuts.
nut butter unosi N C.

a spread used for sandwiches etc.
nutrition nuvuhomi N I.


oak vintu N W.


oasis saaval a nuuvun N C.


object amanoha N C.


obligation aminui N I.


obscure ejoto V EV


observation asoi N I.

Not used for observation of smaller things, animals or plants, but more for observations of bigger places or events.
observation hujota N I.


observe hujooto V EV


obsidian vuhata a hisetuvan N W.


obsidian vatahisetuvan N W.


obstacle vutani N I.

figurative obstacle
obtain hokehuto ... a V EV

obtain something from someone via trade, that which is obtained becomes the direct object, and the trade partner or partners are an indirect object preceded by 'a' (here: from)
obtain edojo V EV

For things you found, usually by chance, in the outside world (that didn't already belong to someone), not for abstract things like ranks, titles, positions or similar things.
obtain evoto V EV

For natural resources and other things obtained from nature.
obtain sundo V EV

of something which has a known location
occupation amini N I.


occupy hotuvo V EV


ocean saanuahad N W.


ocean saanuahad N W.


ocean saanuva N W.

water and everything in it (in the deeper sea)
ocean current sau tune ... (saanuahad a)... N W.

instead of 'tune' (in, inside) 'sohuhe' (below) can also be used
ocean water sauva N W.

referring to ocean water, and only the water
ocean wave sau N W.


oceanography tonesani a saanuva N I.

not covering waves (see 'tonesani a saa' for that)
octopus mekoimatta N W.


oddity ilninvi N I.


oddness ilninvi N I.


odour doneni N I.


of a ADP



of course hujote ADV



off oove ADV



offer hokedo V EV


office amin N C.

referring to the room, not the enterprise/institution/etc. itself
office block doviat N C.


office block dovi a amin N C.


often donaadat ADV



oh yeah? memo? I


calling a statement into question, expressing surprise or disbelief, as in 'Did you [just] really say/mean that?'
oil menesa nuhe favide N C.

usually shortened to 'menesa' if the context makes it obvious.
oil menesa N C.


oldness nihaa N I.


omen vunoji N I.


on vue ADV



on ove ADP



on top of ove ADP



on top of each other masove ADP



once dote ADV


standard indicator for past tense if the exact time is unknown
once upon a time hadote ADV


Can, separated by a comma, stand at the beginning of a sentence.
one iki NUM



one hundred twenty-five hadati NUM


base-5 equivalent to 1000
one million nine hundred fifty-three thousand one hundred twenty-five evokihivat NUM


1 000 000 000 in base-5, 1 953 125 in base-10.
online huuve ADV


Has its origin in the (still existing) carrier bird/pigeon networks existing in Jute/South Jute.

Also is used to mean 'while being connected/through connections'
onliness iki N I.


only netie ADV



only just ialme ADV



onward te ADV



onwards te ADV



open foo V EV


open land foin N I.

Also used for other land with no man-made boundaries such as walls, borders in sight, i.e. jungles, mountains etc.
open sea saanu N W.


opening foa N C.


openness foi N I.

physical freedom, as for example the freedom to roam, or the lack of (metaphorical) chains that would prevent you from doing that
opine tesoamio V EV


opinion tesoami N I.


opportunity hokoni N I.


opposite dee ADV



oppositely teute ADV



oppress lumadoo V EV


oppress noito motevo V EV


oppress dohuo V EV


oppress hotuvo V EV


oppression hotuvimi N I.


oppression lumadou N I.

Oppression by force.
oppression hotuvi N I.


oppressor dohuomo N C.


oppressor hotuvimo N C.


option hedadi N I.


or em C



or emal C


introducing a leading question, expecting 'no'.
oracle tahivahanimo N C.

referring to a person, not a place
orator tahivomo N C.

someone whose profession is, or includes, holding speeches
orbit letaf a vuhifin N I.


orbit letafo in vuhifinede V UEV


order kio V EV

transitive meaning
order lumadoo V EV

referring to giving orders, or commanding
order ninvi N I.


order ki N I.


order lumadoi N I.


orderliness ninvi N I.


orderly fashion ki N I.


ore eva N C.

Ore that has already been obtained, not ore that is still in deposits.
ore tusaheva N C.

referring to natural alloys containing silver that have been mined or obtained some other way or any kind of silver ore (e.g. Acanthite)
organ tanemat N C.

rare variant: tamemat
organelle tanematifi N C.


organisation mihonafi N I.

national or international ones
organise jufino V EV


organise kio V EV

transitive meaning
organiser kivo N C.

any physical objects that are used for ordering or organizing of a large amount of things, such as tabs in folders or separators in a bookshelf.

Not for things of which you usually only use one, like a personal organizer.
origin nike N C.

used when talking about the origin of life in general, especially forests, plants and such
origin niki N I.


originate niko V EV


other ilehi N I.

literally 'unlikeness'
other fal N I.

when referring to 'the other' in sociological/political contexts, e.g. when talking about a 'they vs. us' mentality
otherness ilehi N I.


otherness sainahai N I.

Often meant to be 'otherness' in the sense of 'exoticness', so it usually has a more positive connotation than in e.g. English.
ought teo V



oust ilvuato V EV


out haji ADP I.

for near things, abstract/immaterial gender
out haja ADP C.

for near locations, common gender
out haju ADP W.

for near locations, wilderness gender
out of oda ADP C.

referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)
out of odi ADP I.

referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)
out of odu ADP W.

referring for example to the source of something (e.g. 'from a book') or the substances/concepts/etc. used to create or bring forth something ('out of thin air')

Consonant assimilates when used to derive words, for example 'oda' + 'lumo' (force, power) = archaic 'ollumo', modern 'olumo' (to erect, edify, create with your own power, not indirectly)
out there efinav ADV


in unspecified locations
outdoors hau N W.


outdoors ha ADV



outlaw ilhoko V EV

in transitive sentences or in intransitive sentences with a subject that is not human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns)
outside ha ADP



outside hai N I.

when speaking of 'the outside' in general
outside ha ADV



outside tohene ADV


meaning 'towards the outside' used with dynamic verbs, like 'to go (back)', used e.g. when visiting foreign buildings or structures
outsider sainahai N C.

/sɐinɐhɐi/ is also correct, but not used much and sounds very formal to ears of native speakers.
outwards hea ADV


originally for near locations, but also used humorously for far away locations.

Dialectically also used in some other situations that are neither particularly far away nor close (e.g. outwards, on the open sea, or outwards, down the river), especially in South Jute
outwit hajeheo V EV


oval toloki N C.


oven honvanon N C.

used to refer to an oven/ovens in general specifically (rather than 'fevon', which is more generic)
oven favon N C.

rarely used, usually to mean 'stove and oven' then
over ove ADP



over noohe ADP


used in comparisons, e.g. when saying something is at a higher level, unless it's at the highest level possible, in which case 'ove' (on, on top of, over) is used
overcome loto V M

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)
overlook dejo V EV


overpower lumoo dee V EV


overpowering lumodee N I.


overshare tavuo eeovolati nonafede a navanmo V EV

Full definition: 'talk about private problems behind the back of your family and community, thereby embarrassing them in front of strangers'

Can be turned intransitive by removing the indirect case suffix -ti from 'eeovolati' and leaving out the agent.
overthrow ijoto ... hea V EV

the 'hea' appears as adverb after the objects, but before temporal or local adverbs
overview asoi N I.


overwhelm lumoo dee V EV


overwhelming smell doneni a lumodee N I.


oxygen vi a tiseei N I.


oyster ufede N C.


pacify mo V EV


pack jufu N W.

for wild animals only
packaging desofena N C.

usually more loose packaging made of fabric or some other easily removable material
packaging fuda N C.

usually referring to tighter packaging that is glued on or tied together, made from e.g. paper, plastic or cardboard
page najaseli N I.

a page on a computer screen or similar
pain holdo V EV

meaning used in transitive sentences
pain holde N I.


paint johatono V EV

for paintings and similar
paint joho V EV


painting johatonefa N C.


pair liiki N I.


palace sonejevo N C.


pancake kelamafi N C.


pancreas nuatahava a velu N C.


paper ikoma N C.


paper fase N C.
CIT
paper ikoma a jehiooni N C.


paper jehiooni nuhe hotiohi N C. POET

paradise nut dunata N C.


paragraph hotiohiva N I.


paralyse molo V EV


paranoia vandi a toovaihi N I.

only 'vandi' declines, so IDR. would be 'vanditi a toovaihi' and OBL. 'vandide a toovaihi'
parcel tova N C.


parent vunam N C.


parent vunamo V EV


parenthood vunami N I.

referring to the concept of being a parent in general, hence abstract gender
parenting vunami N I.

referring to the concept of being a parent in general, hence abstract gender
park safan a nonat N C.

A park with mangrove trees, for example at the beach. Alternatively, 'safan a sitti' can be used, especially when talking about the biggest town on Jute, Sitti.
park dovan a nonat N C.

alternatively, 'dovan a sitti' can be used, especially when talking about the biggest town on Jute, Sitti.
parka muuvit N C.


part va N C.


part kiovo V EV


part kiovi N C.,I.

referring to familiar, abstract and unknown/unknowable things, but not wild/dangerous ones
part kiovu N W.

referring to wild/dangerous things, for example in a jungle
part kiovi N C.,I.


part of a load onkifi N I.


partially kiove ADV



participate vodoono V UEV

Takes the adposition 'nuhe' (for)
particularly ovefe ADV



partner nodesaina N C.


pass deo V EV


passion vanoimat N I.


passion vanoi N I.


passionately vane ADV



passive voice toni a tahivide a nohi N I.


passport sinivo N C.


password hotajoti N I.


past dee ADP


Usage notes:

1) spatial: 'beyond a place' (adposition)

2) spatial: 'at the other side of' (adposition)

3) spatial/abstract: missing something (adposition/adverb)

4) spatial: 'while passing a place' (adposition/adverb)

5) temporal 'happening during the passing of a point in time' (adposition)
past doniti N I.


past noohe ADP


When the location being referred to is at a higher level,or moves to it, e.g. a road moving past a village up a mountain
pasta sikulunea N C.


paste unosi N C.

a spread used for sandwiches etc.
path ton N C.


pattern kamotilo V EV


pattern kamotili N I.


pause ilvutifo V EV


pause ilvutifi N I.


pay muuno V EV


pay attention mudaso V EV

not used for 'pay attention in school', used in sentences like 'pay attention to your surroundings', 'pay attention, keep your eyes open while walking on the street'
pay attention noitosano V EV

intransitive sentences only, for scholarly knowledge/formal education
peace miaha N I.


peace mohomo N I.


peak ovaiseti N I.


peak ovaisetu N W.

For peaks in the jungle or other lands/of mountains seen as wild
peanut testot N C.


peanut butter unosi a testot N C.

sometimes also called 'nea a unosi a testot', literally translated as 'flour of wetness of peanut'
pear fijim N C.


pebble vuatafi N C.


peek asomiko V UEV


peep diit N I.


peep diito V UEV


pen hotivo N C.


pencil hotivofi N C.


penguin islo N W.


peninsula oena a alvivo N C.


people sainif N C.


people saini N I.

since Jutean doesn't distinguish numbers in nouns for the most part, context is used for disambiguation, or an added numeral
pepper kadenai N C.

referring to black pepper
per nuuf ADP W.


per nufi ADP I.


per nuaf ADP C.


per na ADP



perceive dono V EV


percentage manhaadiva N I.

Percentages got turned into "pertwentyfivages" due to the base-5 system, so the range only goes from 1-25, rather than 1-100
perception doni N I.


perception fuumi N I.

not as in what is perceived with the senses, but the understanding of something
perfection lomohi N I.


perfective aspect indicator lomohe ADV



period ooni N I.


period doniva N I.


perish ejaho ... kedoonif V UEV


perish ilevoto ... nosaati V EV

See notes for 'ilevoto ... nosaati' (to die)
perish mellovo V EV

only used for food
perpetualness kedonifi N I.


person saini N I.


person mat N C.


person to be buried unsa N



pertain ano V EV


pertaining to ande ADP



pester dusovo V EV


pestle neivo N C.


phase doniva N I.


philosopher sahaimo N C.


philosophical paradox sahai N I.


philosophical question sahai N I.


philosophy sahai N I.


phone tesohava N I.


phoneme tesoha N I.


phorusrhacidae huuva a vandovohi N W.


phrontistery saihon N C.


physical world nin N I.

as oppposed to 'vin', the sphere of ideas.
physician nusaifomo N C.


physics nesaniva N I.


piano teene N C.


pick fefo V EV


pickle heme a uiliva N C.

any sort of pickled food or otherwise preserved in jars like fruit preserves
pigeon miis N C.


pike kiovalvu N C.


pile feo V EV

rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
pillow musa N C.


pinch famo V EV


pine vilsehu N W.


pineapple duke N C.


pipe nuatahava N C.

for ducts or pipes that are only connected on one end and dispense water or some other liquid on the other one, e.g. for washing or drinking
pipe tula N C.


pistol senil N C.


pitaya vanokama N C.


pitch tahadova N C.


pitch loti N I.

e.g. rising, falling, etc. tone
pitch accent okiovi N I.


place ano V EV

'to make belong to'
place ana N C.


place ki N I.

Referring to expressions like '1st place', '2nd place' etc.
place non N C.

place of something bigger (like a tree, a meadow or a harbor) that has 'settled down' and isn't likely to change much soon
place ninva N I.

an unspecified, more abstract place, as for example in 'one's place in the world'
plain kelama N C.


plan hajeo V EV

Used if there's a lot of thought going into the plan, or if it's some stroke of genius or brilliant idea worked out. Occasionally used sarcastically, but neutral use is by far more common.
plan hajefa N I.


plane vailihuto N C.


plane keneja N C.
CIT outside Sitti used only as a synonym for particularly large planes
planet savanhi N I.


plankton asfiso N W.


plant haadova N C.


plant okio ... an oenade V EV

'...' is replaced by the subject (and optionally, an object)
plate feva N C.


plateau kelama a hisetu N W.


play masijo V EV

an instrument or a song
play maamio V EV


play vunoja N C.

referring to theater plays, musicals, even wrestling.
play iduo V EV


play with maamio V EV


playing maami N I.


playing maami N I.


please ukemo I


when e.g. asking for a favor, separated by a comma in writing
pleasure dihuke N I.


pledge nokeko V EV


plot hajeo V EV

Has no negative connotation, can also refer to making an intelligent plan.
plow lundivo N C.


poem hotohiva N I.


poetry hotohi N I.


point vuatifi N I.


point nojo V EV

ergative
point of view ninva N I.

Used with 'nuhe' ('for')
poison masivo N C.


political philosophy sahai N I.


politics nojinonaf N I.


polytheism Homanuki a vunamat a kiovif N I.


ponder fofeo V EV


pony mikefi N C.


popcorn mevofu N C.
CIT
population sainif N C.


porcelain vatasoa N C.


porridge sedame N C.

also used for some stews and other thick foods made in a pot
port saava a nonat N C.

for ships
portal tinivo N C.


portion kiovi N I.


possibility hokoni N I.

Possibility in the sense of 'opportunity' or 'legal possibility'
possibility eeji N I.

Refers to possibilities that come to be via someone's or something's ability or abilities, but that could be rendered impossible due some unforeseen events. That is, it refers to something that is possible in general, but not necessarily at the time of speaking.
post office tovon N C.


pot seda N C.


potter maikomo N C.


potter's wheel maikomivo N C.


pottery maiko N C.

referring both to the handicraft and a pottery item
pottery item maikefa N C.

a finished item of pottery, often particularly well-made or elaborate
pottery item maiko N C.

referring both to the handicraft and a pottery item
pouch tusa N C.

a packet or tiny package for condiments, shampoo or similar
pound kummo V EV


pour meneso V EV

for oil only
pour tahoovo V EV


poverty illumo N I.


powder neu N C.


powdered sugar kim a neu N C.


power lumamo N I.

Political power and other kinds that make it possible for someone to force their will through
power lumo N I.


power lumomat N I.

Physical power or strength only.
powerfully lumame ADV


referring to non-physical power, e.g. political power
powerfully lumomate ADV


referring to physical power or strength
powerlessness illumo N I.

sometimes also 'illumi', especially when talking in a more general sense
practice asejo V EV


praise ukahio V EV


praise ukahi N



prank melliva N I.


prank lemuso V EV


prank mello V EV

No prepositions necessary, unlike in English 'to play a prank on'
pray mosaiho V UEV


prayer mosaihi N



preach ukahio V EV


precaution itohi a havandi N I.


precipice vente N W.


predator nuovanu N W.


prefer saihadao V EV


pregnancy vatti a nuina N C.


preparation itohi N I.


prepare ito ... muavati V EV

Used mostly for smaller fields. Larger ones use 'lundo'. Intransitive sentences would use 'ito muava', dropping the indirect case suffix used for direct objects.
prepare oneself itohe V EV

treated as an inflected form, so if a particular mood is used, the 'he' can become a particle, and the mood is denoted with a suffix instead, e.g. 'itot he' ('shall prepare oneself')
presence heni N I.


preserve ho V EV


preserves heme a uiliva N C.

any sort of pickled food or otherwise preserved in jars like fruit preserves
press tehekato V EV


press secretary liotafavimo N C.


pretence ilhavani N I.


pretend ilhavano V EV

Default transitive meaning: 'pretend to exist', however, if it is followed by a verb, the meaning changes to 'pretend to [verb]'.

Intransitive meaning: 'to make appear real', reflexive/reciprocal meaning: 'to pretend to oneself/each other'
pretender ilhavanimo N C.


prevalence anti N I.


prevent amokonilo V EV


prevention amokonil N I.


previous adoni DET



prick kavo V EV


prickle kava N C.


prickle kavo V EV


priest mosaihinamo N C.

'church worker', for priests working in church-like houses
priest moonamo N C.

'temple worker', for priests not working in church-like houses
prince or princess duoto N C.


print najaselo V EV


print najasela N C.

something printed, e.g. a (copy of a) photo, a copy of a painting or a single page of text
printing press vailinajasela N C.


prison netun N C.

Originates in the fact that the Juteans captured by the Klambaris after their invasion saw their city walls as a sort of prison. Slightly poetic, but still acceptable for all language registers.

Can by extension be used to refer to other things standing between you and your freedom as well. For immaterial/abstract ones, 'netuuni' is used.
prison netuuni N I.

A mental 'prison' keeping you from doing something, be it what you want or need to do, or that keeps you from achieving (including, but not limited to spiritual) freedom, your full potential or other things.
prison dahe N I.

Used mostly in a philosophical sense, when e.g. talking about liberty.
'A land that you are supposed to never leave is like a prison with another name'
privilege donihonoki N I.


probability asijoki N I.


probably asijoke ADV



problem vutani N I.


process aseji N I.


proclaim uivato V EV


proclamation uivata N I.


produce uisa N C.

used mostly for gathered and foraged food, not limited to mushrooms but also including e.g. fruit, nuts etc., anything not farmed on fields or in gardens
product amefa N I.

something produced
progress tiahi N I.


progressing hiati N I.


progressive marker he ADV



projector nioonivo N C.

mostly for videos only
promise nutahuki N I.


promise nutahuko V EV


pronounce tesoho V EV


prophecy johanni N I.


prophesise johanno V EV


prophesy johanno V EV


prosperity amike N I.


protect netumio V EV

to watch over someone or something, not protect by hiding or similar
protect ejoto V EV


protection netumi N I.

especially against wild animals, crime etc.
Military protection is 'hetevi'
protection vunami N I.

especially parental protection of children
protection ejota N C.


protection hetevi N I.

roughly corresponds to 'military protection'
proton fikemek N I.


prove vunojo tavani V EV


provide nuo V EV


psychology tonesani a saini N I.


pub tahoin N C.


public lihotafa N C.


publication liotafavi N I.


publicise lihotafavo V EV


publish liotafavo V EV


publisher liotafavimo N C.


pull emtoo V EV


pull out sundo V EV

of something which has a known location
punch hevi N I.

referring both to the act and the actual punch itself
punch hevo V EV


punishment mohomovo N I.


puppet vunojeha N C.


purity saveefa N I.

also referring to something like 'spiritual purity'
purpose nuhi N I.

'for the purpose of' would be 'in nuhide a'
push teheko V EV


put okio V EV

cognate with NGU 'hongi' (put)
put away uilo V EV


put in charge vuato ove V EV


put under fevo V EV


puzzle sihai N I.


quadrillion evokefuk NUM


referring to the base-5 equivalent of a (short scale) quadrillion
quality ohi N I.


quality time doninodesaina N I.


quark kafelak N I.


quark dafute a musuu N C.


queen vunam a efi a vunamanede N C.

used mostly in translated stories, sometimes also when talking about the history of other nations, rarely if ever used for any present ruler (with exceptions)
quell hotuvo V EV


question saihasao V EV


question haa N I.


quick movement tivuu N I.


quickly vue ADV



quickness vuu N I.


quiet motevi N



quill humatava N C.


quill hotivo N C.


quit toho V EV


rabbit iten N W.


race vui N I.


race track vuin N I.


racism ki a vetti a fal N I.


rack uila N



racquet vettivo N C.


radiate tiso V EV


radiation tisoi N I.


radio vailitesohova N C.

often shortened to "VTV" or 'vaites'
raid ufeni N I.


railroad kaunkatonat N C.


railway kaunkatonat N C.


rain fofeo V EV

Requires a subject, such as 'saanuhuu' (sky)
rain fofesaava N C.


rainbow butterfly unicorn kitten nojahaaji N I.


raise vuammo V EV


raise nooho V EV


rake feo V EV

rarely used with sapient beings in intransitive sentences except in a metaphorical or poetical sense
rake feivo N C.


randomise ilikio V EV


rank ki N I.


rapid kisu N W.

a single rapid or chute in a river
rapids tahu N W.


rareness alanti N I.


rarity alanta N C.


rather haade ADV



rather than ilehe C



raw material eva N C.


raze tisoheo V EV


razor tasivo nuhe lusade N C.


re- -tilo AFF


Denotes the repetition of an action. Examples include 'amotilo' (repeat, do again) and 'sinotilo' (rename)
reach femo V EV


reach ijotado V EV

used when the target of the transmission, connection or similar (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is sapient and/or animate, with that which was used to reach the target a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
reach ijotido V EV

used when the target (a thing or a place) of the transmission, connection or similar (which is the direct object in a transitive sentence or the subject in an intransitive one) is immaterial or abstract, e.g. a mind, digital networks, a period or point in time as well anything unknown (including material things), e.g. an unknown place, with that which was used to reach the target a possible additional oblique object preceded by 'ude' (with)
reach tefo V EV


reach femo V EV


react amoto V EV

intransitive meaning: 'to be reacted to'
reaction amoti N I.


read fuumo V EV


realisation lomohi N I.


realise aso V EV


reality havani N I.


really tavane I



really memo? I


calling a statement into question, expressing surprise or disbelief, as in 'Did you [just] really say/mean that?'
really ihavane ADV



realness havani N I.


reappear edo ... atile V UEV


reason saihasao V EV

Meaning when used in sentences with no direct object (intransitive ones)
reason sini N I.

Used especially in questions, like 'What is the reason/meaning for this?'
reasonability saihasi N I.


rebuild olumotilo V EV


recapitulate fumotilo V EV


receive evoto V EV


receiver movotohe N C.


recipient lihotona N C.


reckon tiilo V UEV

used particularly by expatriates or those who have a lot of contact with them
reconcile mohomoo V EV

no adposition such as e.g. 'with' needed
recorder nioonivo N C.

mostly for videos only
recover evotilo V EV


recreate olumotilo V EV


recur asejo V EV


red jevani N I.


redden jevano V EV

Verbs for other colors are similarly derived.
reduce ilhaado V EV


reeducate hotilvuho V EV


reef kuul N W.

e.g. a coral reef
reestablish olumotilo V EV


reflect toheno V EV


reflection toheni N I.


reform hiativo N I.


refresh lottuvo V EV


refuge mudasin N C.


regain evotilo V EV


regain consciousness atilo vuhati V UEV


regain consciousness evotilo nisaifiti a saini V UEV


regarding sie ADP


used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
regarding ande ADP



regarding nuhe ADP


'regarding' as in 'with respect to' not, as in the gerund form of 'to regard' (which would be 'sinohi')
regardless foije ADV



regardless of foije ADP



region uisi N C.

Subdivided into 'uisifi' (counties), which usually include nine or ten 'nonaf' (urban or sprawling communities, or collections of separate rural settlements)

Cities and towns are not seen as regions themselves and are called 'nonat' instead.

A bigger region, like a state, would be 'nonafat', but this is rarely used outside political, scientific or administrative language.
reinvent olumoho ... atile V EV


reject allo V EV


reject tovoheo V EV


rejection ali N I.


rejoice sovio V EV

intransitive meaning 'lead to rejoicing, be enjoyed very much'
rejoice doonato V EV


rejoicing sovi N I.


rekt ilvit (lomhe) PHR
SLNG

relate sino V EV

in regards to topics or issues
relate to so. tahadovo V UEV

ergative
relating to sie ADP


used with verbs, for example 'veeho sie' (laugh about), or with nouns, e.g. 'tonikki sie kiovohi' (algorithm regarding the distribution)
relating to ande ADV



relation tahadovi N I.

for interdependent relations between two objects.
relation vunami N I.

causal/dependent relation rather than interdependent ones
relationship tahadovi N I.

for interdependent relations between two objects.
relationship vunami N I.

causal/dependent relation rather than interdependent ones
relationship tahadovi N I.

for example between friends
relationship vunami N I.

relationships in a family, especially between parents and children, and sometimes later between caregiver and caretaker as well.
relative jufiva N C.


relax mihono V UEV


relevance tahadovi N I.


relief ilvuati N I.


relieve ilvuato V EV


religion homani N I.


religious school vamejoti N I.


rely juto V T

for anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas
rely oeno V EV

for persons and physical objects or their activities, not on anything abstract or immaterial such as ideas ('juto' would be used in those cases)
remain hono V UEV


remark fuli N I.


remedy nusaifivo N C.


remember nesatilo V EV


remembrance nesatili N I.


remote control vailiamivo N C.


remoteness hea N I.


removal ilvuati N I.


remove ilvuato V EV


remove tavuheo V EV

when talking about things or persons that shouldn't be in the place the speaker is talking about, or that were or are being removed
remove ilejoto V EV


rename sinotilo V EV


renew hohivo V EV


renew lottuvo V EV


renounce deo V EV


repair iltin N I.


repair iltino V EV


repeat amotilo V EV


repeat memotilo V EV


repeatedly play the same song masijotilo V EV


replace jufeho V EV


replacement jufehi N I.


reply memonki N I.


reply memonko V UEV


report tesohovi N I.


report tesohovo V EV


reporter tesohovamo N C.

'tesohovomo' is a variant, but has a stronger connotation of 'announcer'
represent vunojo ehe V EV


representation vunojehi N I.


reproduction hini N I.


reproductive system hinivo N C.


reptile talva N W.

referring to larger reptiles, such as crocodiles
reptile kavelu N W.

usually referring to smaller lizards or reptils
republic Hotuvimolan N I.


republic Vunaman a hotuvimol N I.


republic vonseem N I.


rescue mudaso V EV


rescue mudasi N I.


rescue umti N I.

particularly at sea
rescuer mudasomo N C.


research fuumi N I.


researcher fuumimo N I.


resemble hedojao V UEV

like 'to be' this takes one or two nouns in the direct case, and no direct objects.
resin tahadova N C.


resistance eti N I.


resource evohi N I.



Sarcastically, or when being modest, this can also be used for the result of your or someone else's work.
respect johakaino V EV


respiratory system nosaivo N C.


rest mihono V UEV


restaurant hemon N C.


resting day vuhami N I.

Lexember 25
restore mohomoo V EV


restrict soheno V EV


restrict daho V T

In this sense requiring an object and commonly used together with these words:

'daho tahivati' – 'to censor/restrict words'
'daho vunojati/niooniti' – 'to restrict a show/movie from public viewing'
'daho kioviti' – 'to censor a part (of a movie/show/etc.)
'daho hotifiti' – 'to restrict the circulation of a book (while not banning the possession of it)'
restriction soheni N I.


result amefo V UEV


result evohi N I.

Of a calculation.
result evo AFF


For anything where the result can't be influenced/altered by humans, such as mathematics
result kilvuni N I.

Used for races and other things where a result is more or less a 'final order'.
result evohi N I.

Originally, the result of something that wasn't your own or someone else's intentional work, but rather the result of the doing of impersonal forces, or in a wider meaning, the result of something you did unintentionally.

Sarcastically, or when being modest, this can also be used for the result of your or someone else's work.
result amefa N I.

Sometimes erroneously used for the result of a calculation, which would be more properly 'evohi'.
retaliate atilo V T

requires a transitive sentence
retaliation atili N I.


retrieve sundo V EV

of something which has a known location
retrieve teko V EV


retry nuhetilo V EV


retted stems or husks unosiva N C.

Fiber plant parts, such as e.g. jute stems or coconut husks, prepared by retting. See notes on 'unosi' (retting) for an explanation of the term.
rettery unosin N C.

A place for retting. See notes for 'unosi' (retting) for an explanation of the term.
retting unosi N I.

the process of submerging the stems of fiber plants such as jute or the husks of coconuts to help separate the fiber from the wooden part
return toheno V M

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones)

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive. 'to return to' is 'toheno li'.
return atilo V UEV


review fumotilo V EV


revolution ilvuatihad N I.


reward muune N I.


reward muuno V EV


rhythm midi N I.


ribbon itikoma N C.


rice fali N C.


rice fali N C.


ricotta dafute a musuu N C.


ridicule veeho V EV

Intransitive meaning: be laughed at, be ridiculed.
right lumi N I.


right emal I



right lumi N I.


right hokoni N I.


right lume ADV


The right hand is the dominant hand for most people.
rightfully hokone ADV



rightfulness hokoni N I.

particularly when used with 'a' in front of it as an adjectival noun
ring folda N C.


ring tone tesohi N I.


rip fesoo V EV


ripen lottuvo V EV


ripeness lottu N I.


rise vunuho V UEV


risk dati N I.


rite muje N C.


river tahoon N C.


river burial unsi a tahoon N I.

burial rite involving sending the body down a river on a small boat
river water tahoonava N C.


road jaaseton N C.


road tonat N C.


robot matavahi N C.


rock fola N C.


rocket himmin N C.


rocket launcher kontakatesol N C.


roll utukio V EV


romantic interest fumodiamo N C.


room tun N C.


room dahe N I.


root usa N C.


rope lojatukefa N C.


rope kaana N C.


rose asi N C.


rotate lesuko V EV


roughness ilekami N I.


rouse ijotovo V EV


route tonahi N I.


route tonaho V EV


router tonahivo N C.


row ite N I.


rub faho V EV


rubber eevuhu nuhe uldohi N C.


rubber tree dova a eevuhu N C.


rubbish eeovola N C.

Literally 'that which can't be used'
ruby kinik N W.


rude person vikinimo N C.


ruffian heva N C.


ruggedness ilekami N I.


rule noitoti N I.

Referring to just rule.
rule kivi N I.


rule lumoo ... ove V EV

Refers to unjustified coercive rule maintained only via force.
rule over noito to V EV

the phrase is similar to 'I make things go here' in English and refers to justified, just ruling only, not any kind of coercive power maintained via force or similar.

Also used to mean 'rule over an industry' or 'rule over' in a more metaphorical sense.
ruler hotuvimo N C.

For unjustly ruling people or those with no legitimized rule.
run vuo V UEV


run fofeo V UEV


run happily sevo V UEV


run in forest sevo V UEV


run into atteo V M

unergative verb in sentences where the subject is human (or otherwise sapient and using human pronouns), but ergative when the subject is another living being or inanimate (using the animate pronouns or the inanimate ones).

Like other unergative verbs it can’t take a direct object and is necessarily intransitive.
run over tovo tuuve V EV


rustle tehedusa N I.


rustle teheduso V EV


Saavdis tahivi a fales PPR I.


sachet tusa N C.

a tiny perfumed bag or one that contains herbs, spices, condiments or similar to use in cooking or for serving
sacrifice unsa N



sacrifice unso V EV


sacrificing unsi N I.


sadness fuedii N I.


safety mudasi N I.


saffron demuve N C.


sail huuteeko V UEV

uses 'an/un/in' (in, within) for bodies of water, so e.g. to sail an ocean is 'huuteko un saanuahad', or 'ado/udo/ido' (at) for lands sailed past
sailor huteekomo N C.


salt kosema N C.


same vave ADV I.


same vava N I.


sample nuheo V EV


sanatorium nusaifon N C.


sanctuary mudasin N C.


sand netava N C.

only dry beach sand
sand saanava N C.

mostly wet sand at the bottom in coastal waters.
sand iivo N


Generic term for beach sand.
sap eevuhu N C.


sap tahadova N C.


sapling kenu N W.

used for trees in a jungle or other 'wild' places
sapling dovafi N C.

used for trees grown in gardens, parks or other places that aren't considered 'wild'
sapphire hedas N W.


satellite vuhataat a vun N C.


satiety onki N I.


sauna vanotun N C.


savanna tajedovul N W.


save mudaso V EV


save uilo V EV

a ditransitive verb like 'to give', requires no prepositions for the indirect object (usually the place the direct object is stored in), this meaning used for digital saving of documents etc.
saw kiovata N C.


saw kivoto V EV

Takes the 'li' preposition, 'li leke' = in two, in half.

'kiovato' is a dialectal variant and has fallen out of use in some regions.
say fulo V UEV


say memo V M

Can take either an oblique object (usually introduced with 'a', about) specifying the topic or the thing being said, or a direct one (usually some word like 'va', part or 'ji' abstract/immaterial form of 'this', the proximal demonstrative pronoun)
Neither is necessary if the sentence follows or introduces direct speech.

A 'nuhe' is used before the word referring to the person or people being addressed

If the speaker is unknown or unimportant, 'saini' (a person/people) or a similar term can be used instead of the pronoun or noun. Alternatively, the subject can be omitted entirely, thereby implying an impersonal subject or a 4th person pronoun, similar to the English constructions 'It is said that a/an ... exists' or 'It/There is said to be a/an ...'

(See also the entry 'memo', 'to be said to')
say excitedly diito V EV


say happily diito V EV


saying fuli N I.


scald tinasaavo V EV


scald tinasaava N C.


scale fudufi N W.

referring to scales from a lizard, snake or similar animal
scandal ilukaini N I.


scar divu N C.


scaremongering vomisa N I.

full definition: 'causing of a mass panic through fear-mongering or irresponsible handling of delicate information'
scarf jodeku N C.

sometimes called 'ejotadeku' in older forms of the language
scarf joteku N C.
CIT
scatter ilikio V EV


scene joha N C.


scenery joha N C.


scent temosaivi N I.

referring to good smells
scholar fuumimo N I.


school noitosanon N C.

for scholarly knowledge/formal education
school fola N C.

historically, school classes often took places at beaches on large rocks, since it had many important subjects (waves, the ocean, fishing, the weather as well as many important animals) nearby
science tonesani N I.


scientist tonesanimo N C.


scissors kiovialeke N C.


scoop tasivo N C.


scorch vuhoto V EV

used for the sun or similar celestial bodies, use for other sources of heat is uncommon
score vetto V EV


scrape taso V EV


scraper tasivo N C.


scrapyard eeovolan N C.


scratch taso V EV


scratch hotio V EV


scream sianodo V EV

equivalent to 'to scream at'
scream siado V UEV


screen johovahi N I.

Also used as a general term for the content that is displayed.
Abbreviated as jv.
scrub kuselu N W.


sea saanu N W.


sea foam saefa N C.


sea life nuhuhaadu a saanu N W.


sea salt tasake N C.


sea wave saa N C.


sea wave saami N C.

used for calm waves
seafloor saanuvi N W.


seafood hemesuuva N C.


seal nas N I.


seal uldo V EV

referring to sealing or filling gaps, holes etc.
sealife nusaanu N W.


seam dalki N C.


search for teko V EV


seashell tusu N C.


season dotohava N I.


seat heton N C.


seawater saava N C.

general term
secret ejoti N I.


secret miki N I.


secretary lihotomo N



secure uso V EV


security usimo N C.

referring to the security department of a place such as e.g. an airport, or security officers in general
security usi N I.


sediment taneu N C.


seduce hedomido V EV


seduction vikinivat N I.


see joo V EV


seed nike N C.


seed niku N W.

used for seeds of jungle or other 'wild' plants
seem hedojao V UEV

like 'to be' this takes one or two nouns in the direct case, and no direct objects.
seemingly hedojae ADV



seer vamejotimo N C.


segment kon N I.


seismology tonesani a saauvu N I.


seizure hedi N I.


seizure tivuu N I.


select hedado V EV


selection hedadi N I.


self tai N I.


self-confidence fesualumo N I.


semantics nesanisini N I.


send tovo V EV

Used to refer to a sending that has specifics targets. unlike for example, broadcasts.
send away tovoheo V EV


send into space daho V EV

context or additional objects can disambiguate if necessary
sender lihota N C.


sender motovohe N C.

for anyone not sending something as a profession
sending tovi N I.


sense eehi N I.

Referring to the senses of a living being, like sight.
sense dono V EV


sense of humour melli N I.


sensory system fuumivo N C.


sentence hoti N I.


sentence vuati N I.

'to sentence someone' would be translated with something literally meaning 'to put down a weight on someone'
sentry netumo N C.


separate kilitio V EV


separation kiliti N I.


sequence todehenti N I.


series todehenti N I.


seriousness kiova N I.


serve hotuvonito V EV

Referring to coerced work.
serve food utuko V EV

Intransitive meaning: 'be served (as food)', for example 'Utuko sedame' (A soup was served)

Transitive/Antipassive: 'to serve (food)', for example 'Utukomo laf' (They serve food) or 'Utuko laf sedameti' (They serve a soup)
server utukamo N C.


service hokedi N I.


serving kiovi N C.,I.


serving onkifi N I.

referring to smaller servings or fillings
serving onki N I.


set jufo V EV


set ite N I.


set in place kio V EV


set up ito V EV


settle juto V EV

originally meant 'make part of one's home', now used with a wider meaning
settlement non N C.

Used mostly for smaller settlements, marked speech when used for bigger ones.
settlement nonaf N C.

used more for moderately large, somewhat sprawling settlements on the verge of becoming actual cities (marked speech when used for smaller ones) or when referring to several settlements in a region together (there more used in rural areas)

Cities and towns are formed with the augmentative suffix instead, 'nonat'.
'Nonafat' would mean referring to all settlements in a bigger region (consisting of smaller ones) and is rarely used.
settlement juton N C.

More general than 'non', which refers more to settlements as in village/dwelling
settling jutai N I.


seven kiif-leke NUM



sever tofo V EV


several kiovuf DET W.

referring to multiple wild/dangerous things, for example in a jungle.

Can overlap with 'haad' (many) when talking about an average number (10-20) of small items. Which one is used would depend on whether the speakers thinks of the amount as a lot or not.
several kiovif DET C.,I.

referring to multiple familiar, abstract and unknown/unknowable things, but not wild/dangerous ones

Can overlap with 'haad' (many) when talking about an average number (10-20) of small items. Which one is used would depend on whether the speakers thinks of the amount as a lot or not.
severing tof N C.


sew dalko V EV


shadow ejota N C.


shake femelo V EV


shake ijotovo V EV


shake awake ijotovo V EV


shaman sanuhotimo N C.


shame ilukaino V EV


shame ilukaini N I.


shape mati N I.


shape mato V EV


share kiovi N C.,I.


share kiovo V EV


shark fetu N W.


sharpness kiova N I.


shatter kummato V EV


shatter amdo V EV


shed teluofo V UEV

tears only
sheep ake N C.


sheet of paper ikoma a jehiooni N C.


shelf uila N C.


shell fudu N W.

referring to the shells of animals, e.g. a snail, or any hard shell of fruits or nuts
shelter udimon N C.

what you grant friends and other people in need of a place to sleep
shelter mudasin N C.


shelter ejotano V EV


shelter ejotan N C.


shepherd akemo N C.


shield netumivo N C.


shine vuho V UEV


shine voono V EV

Not used for the sun, but for the moon and other astral bodies as well as other smaller light sources (like a torch or flashlight) that don't create light so bright it makes the night as bright as day.
shipper vattimo N C.


shipping container helsehat N C.


shirt fesos N C.


shiver ilvufano V UEV


shoot elkoo V EV

for bows and similar weapons
shoot senilo V EV


shooting star fueda (a vuhifin) N I.


shore ves N C.


shore vesu N W.

for wild, dangerous and/or uninhabited shores
shore otu N W.

referring to e.g. a river bank or similar that is dangerous to approach because it has predatory animals or some other danger there
short time doonifi N I.


shortness keni N


shortness as opposed to tallness
shoulder etto N C.


shout tesohi N I.


shout tesoho V EV


show vunoja N C.

referring to TV shows and similar
show vunojo V EV


show masijo V EV


showcase masija N C.


shower vailisaa N C.

historically, rather than a shower, Coastal Juteans used the waves to clean themselves each morning.
shred seko V EV


shrine moomon N C.

shrines with a priest or meditation teacher working or living in or close to them
shrine moin N



shrink ilhaado V EV


shrinking ilhaadi N I.


shudder femelo V EV


sibling nulua N C.


sibling nuluat N C. CASL

sibling nuluafi N C. CASL

sickness ilikimat N I.


side ninva N I.

1) a larger part of a physical place, as in 'this side of the forest', not the edge of something (see 'neti' for that) and not just referring to/implying being a half of one thing (as for example, 'one side of the paper')

2) also used to mean 'standpoint, perspective, view of something' (see 'There are many sides to this/in this argument')

Used with 'nuhe' ('for')
side neti N I.

the narrow edge of something, as in 'side of the street'
sigh osaha N C.


sigh osaho V UEV


sight joha N I.


sight jai N I.


sign vunoji N I.


sign hotitaio V EV

when referring to signing documents or giving signatures in general
sign vunoji N I.


sign vunoja N C.


sign vunoji N I.


signal ijotiva N I.

something transmitted, i.e. the 'content' of a transmission
signature hotitai N I.


significance sini N I.


significant other fumodiamo N C.

used only if you aren't married (yet)
signpost vunoja N C.


silence motevo V T

the transitive meaning of the ergative verb 'motevo' (intransitive: to be silent)
silence motevi N I.


silliness lemusa N I.


silliness lemusa N I.


silt neu N C.


silt taneu N C.


silver tusa N W.


similarity ehei N I.


similarly ehe ADV



simplicity uum N I.


simultaneousness doonivava N I.


since une ADP



since todehente C



sing uivo V EV

intransitive meaning: be sung, or be sung about
singer uivimo N C.


sink tuuvo V EV


sink soasavi N C.


sit heto V UEV


situation ani N I.


six kiif-iki NUM



size haad N I.


skid viiho V UEV


skill amesani N I.


skin mada N C.


skin hooja N C.


skip deo V EV


sky saanuhuu N C.


skyscraper doviat N C.


slaughter kiovono V EV


slave hotuvonit N C.


slavery hotuvoniti N I.


sleep mihinido V UEV


sleep with femaso V UEV

used together with the 'ude' (with) preposition
sleeper mihinidomo N C.


slice utukiva N C.


slide viiho V UEV


slide ruler tikkivo N I.

First counting and mathematical operations in Jute were done by laying sticks in orderly heaps and adding/taking away from them.
slightly ifi ADV


also used as a diminutive suffix
sling ijotivo N C.


slip viiho V UEV


slipperiness leso N I.


slowly feete ADV



slowness feet N I.


slurp viiho V EV


small forest animal fomkava N W.

small animals living in the undergrowth, like insects, worms, spiders, snails, rodents, small predators
smallerness ilhaada N I.


smallestness ilhaadat N I.


smallness ilhaad N



smallness sivua N I.

more like 'tinyness' actually, but can also sometimes used to refer to a broader kind of 'smallness'
smash tammo V EV


smear vikino V EV


smell deki a enade N I.

often the 'a' and 'enade' are conflated in speech
smell doneni N I.


smell deko V EV

for disambiguation purposes, 'ude enade' (with nose) can be added
smell good temosaivo V UEV


smile jaafuko V UEV


smoke keva N C.


smoothness kelami N I.


smudge tuomo V EV


snack favefafo V EV


snack favefafi N C.


snake udelsolka N W.


snake udelsolkat N W.

used for larger or particularly dangerous snakes
sneeze kelio V UEV


snipe elkahoto V EV


sniper elkahoti N C.

also used for snipers with rifles, or similar weapons, not just archers
snivel teluo V UEV


snore heloo V UEV


snow tuul N W.


snuggle navo V EV


so li C


'so' as in 'in order to', for example: 'I went to bed early so I wouldn't be tired in the morning'.

Not as in 'as a result', for example: 'I was tired, so I went to bed' or similar.
so uji I



so ke ADV



so ehe ji C


separated by a comma from the following sentence
so much kehaa ADV



soak unoso V EV


soap savivo N


or anything else used in the function of soap
sob teluofi N UEV

soft, quieter crying
sob teluofo V UEV


social issue haa a nonaf N I.


socialism sahai a amafe N I.


society joomi N I.


sociology Tonesani a nonaf N I.


sock kemi N C.


sock ejotamatta N C.


soft inside of bread devedeva N C.


softness musuu N I.


soil uuva N C.


soil oenava N C.

Referring to some soil or earth, not soil or earth in general. Can also be used to talk about the material of which soil is made up.
soil vikino V EV


soil oena N C.

While 'uuva' also can mean 'soil', it's more often used to mean 'ground, bottom', and 'oena' is the closer translation of 'soil' in most cases.
soil oenu N W.

The soil or earth in the jungle.
solar eclipse fejota a vuhade N C.

often shortened to 'fejota' unless that would be too ambiguous.
solar energy amivi a vuha N I.


soldier ufena N C.


solution evotiki N I.

Mathematical problems
some kiovuf DET W.

referring to multiple (up to 5 with bigger items, 10 with average-sized items and roughly 20 with smaller items) wild/dangerous things, for example in a jungle
some mane DET


referring in particular to quantity, or used with uncountable nouns like 'substance'
some kiovif DET C.,I.

referring to multiple (up to 5 with bigger items, 10 with average-sized items and roughly 20 with smaller items) familiar, abstract and unknown/unknowable things, but not wild/dangerous ones
some day idate ADV



some time donive ADV



someone sainiki P



something kiovihe P I.

for abstract and unknown things (that aren't wilderness-related)
something kiove P C.

Used for known, graspable things.
something kivuhe P W.

older variant 'kiovuhe' still is sometimes used, too
sometime kiovoone ADV



sometimes donakiovif ADV



somewhat ifi ADV


also used as a diminutive suffix
somewhat tonije ADV



somewhere kioven ADV



song uivi N I.


soon idenatifi ADV



soon inatife ADV



sorcerer vamejotimo N C.


sorry mohomo I


More colloquial version, the more formal one is 'mohomohomoo!' ('forgive!', 'reconcile!')
sort kio V EV


sound tesoho V EV


sound tesoha N C.


soup hemetaha N C.


source sundon N C.

a water well, spring or similar
source of water teka a saava N C.


sourness mello N I.


south uhee N I.

The sun rises in the north for Jute (being on the southern hemisphere), so going southwards would be going away from the sun during the day.
southward uhee ADV


The sun rises in the north for Jute (being on the southern hemisphere), so going southwards would be going away from the sun during the day.
souvenir vi a nesatili N I.

Despite being both known and mostly used for physical items (though it's possible to refer to immaterial souvenirs as well with this phrase), it has the abstract/immaterial gender, since that is the gender of 'vi', 'unknown/unspecified thing, entity or stuff' which has that gender because the abstract/immaterial gender is also used for all unknown/unspecified things, even when they are existent in the physical world.
sovereignty foinonaf N I.


soy lei N C.


soybean nike a lei N C.


space dahe N I.

Usually refers to a designated, visibly limited area.
space saanuvuhifi N W.


space dahe N I.


space foin N I.

Land that is not visibly limited by any boundaries and is free from anything else suppressing freedom of movement or other liberties. Used for example in politics or philosophy.
space out daho V IT

sometimes used together with 'etevi hen' (away.ABST from here) to reduce ambiguity

Lexember 2015
spaceship vailita nuhe vuhifinede N C.


spark keleo V UEV


spark kelea N C.


sparkle vonofi V UEV


sparrow suut N W.


spasm tivuu N I.


speak tahivio V EV


speak tahivo V EV

Requires a direct object when used with personal pronouns referring to humans, which can't be direct objects themselves.
speak confidently tahio V UEV


speaker fula N C.


speaker tahivia N C.


speaker vailitahiva N C.


speaker lihotafamo N C.

e.g. the speaker in a parliament
spear tikavet N C.

sometimes also used to refer to arrows
spear tik a kiova N C.


special occasion doonat N I.


special unit amafiit N C.


specialness tai N I.


species ilehu N W.


speech tahivi N I.


speech tahi N I.


speed vuu N I.


sphere utuki N I.


sphere of ideas vin N I.

the traditional philosophical-mythological sphere of abstract ideas, geometric forms, mandalas and colors, with the divine numbers above all.
spherical thing utuki N I.


sphericalness utuki N I.


spice nemiva N C.


spice nemivo V EV


spice keseha N C.

referring to food mixtures that are used as seasoning, e.g. powdered stock or spice mixtures like curry
spider mevad N W.


spin lesuko V EV


spinach jute a Valedina N C.


spirit fesua N I.


spirit fesua N C.

for good and/or helpful, not chaotic or evil spirits
spiritual guide moomo N C.


spiritual realm sanuhoti N I.

Traditionally, a separate spiritual realm was not believed to exist, and spirits believed to be either invisible, shy or hidden physical beings, however later contact with other religions and other developments have changed that to some extent.
spirituality ejotifi N I.

Of a person, the feeling or state of being spiritual
spirituality ejotifivi N I.

Of a religion or similar, inducing feelings of spirituality
split kiovo V EV


spoil mellovo V EV


spoilage mellovi N I.

Has the 'immaterial/abstract' gender because it's a generic term, which also is covered by that gender.
sponge lonta N C.


spoon tasivo N C.


spork vivieme N C.


spot dahe N I.

some specific space/location
spouse nodesaina N C.


sprawl oeedovo V UEV


spread unosi N C.

a spread used for sandwiches etc.
spread esoo V EV


spread out esoo V EV


spread wood chippings helko V EV

The direct object would be the source of the chippings, so that in intransitive sentences 'helko' would translate to 'be spread like wood chippings from'. Can also refer to other kinds of chippings.
spring teka a saava N C.


spring edoja N C.

a spring of water, oil or similar, used when it was found by chance, and not after a deliberate search
spring teka N C.

a spring of water, oil or similar, used when it was found after a deliberate search, not by chance
spring sundoha N C.

e.g. a water fountain or spring, both constructed and natural ones
spring teka a saava N C.


sprinkle water on unosifo V EV


sprout luusa N C.


sprout luuso V UEV

'to sprout something' would be translated with 'matio' (to form)
spy mikojo V EV


spy mikojomo N C.


square fuumon N C.


stab tiko V EV


stab duso V EV


stable tunamova N C.


stack masovo V EV


stage doniva N I.


stairs tovivo N C.


stake tiko V EV


stalk ufeno V EV


stalk nuovano V EV

'stalk' as in 'stalk prey'
stand masija N C.


stand dovo V UEV

(inspired by Ashashiila 'zaræthu', stand)
stand behind sehuko V EV


stand up to dovo te V EV


star vuhifi N I.

I. gender because it was unknown and not realized to be a fully physical object
starch fummai N C.


stare at hotio V EV


starfish kiifava N W.


start novo V EV


start vuno V EV


start novo V EV

Has the meaning of 'launch, initiate', not 'create, make' (which would be 'vuno')

Used for example when talking about starting a new (team-)project or club.
start vuni N I.


start novi N I.

Has the meaning of 'launch, initiation', not 'creation, making' (which would be 'vuni')

Used for example when talking about starting a new (team-)project or club.
start a business novo V EV


start a fire tisefo V EV


start growing luuso V UEV

'to sprout something' would be translated with 'matio' (to form)
state ani N I.


statement tahivi N I.


statistic kilvunif N I.

specifically, an agglomeration of them, rarely used to refer to a single one
status quo ani hen PHR



stay hono V UEV


steal hedoheo V EV

(remove from its proper place, like a statue from a temple or taking important natural resources abroad with no permission)
steam hofa N C.


steer nojo V EV


stench famovi N I.


step leto V UEV

ergative
step leta N C.


step leti N I.


step away from letevo V EV


stew sedame N C.

also used for porridge and other thick foods made in a pot
stew sedalada N C.

jute stew (similar to e.g. Mulukhiyah)
steward noitotimo N C.


stewardship noitoti N I.


stick mola N C.

referring to bigger sticks
stick tik N C.


stick together tahadovo V EV


stickiness tahadovi N I.


stifle hotuvo V EV


still hehe ADV



sting duso V EV


stink famovi N I.


stink famovo V UEV


stitch dalki N C.


stitch kuvo V EV

Usually referring to rougher, less fine work than 'dalko' (to sew, stitch together)
stitch together dalko V EV


stock uilo V EV

a ditransitive verb like 'to give', requires no prepositions for the indirect object
stomach velu N C.


stomach velu N C.

lower chest/upper belly, seen as a separate body part
stone vata- AFF


can be shortened to 'vat' in some dialects
stone vuhata N C.

'vuatti' (weight) is derived from this word
stop ilvutio V EV


stop ilvutovo V EV

Used to talk about someone or something stopping someone or something else.
stop ilvuti N I.


stop ilvuton N C.


stop ilvuto V UEV


store uilo V EV

a ditransitive verb like 'to give', requires no prepositions for the indirect object (usually the place the direct object is stored in)
storeroom uilan N C.


storm huusu N W.


storm fivuavan N W.

storm (mostly) on land, or from land
storm fivoo V EV


storm at sea fivou N W.


story tahi N I.


storyteller tahimo N C.


stove favon N C.


straightness ildesi N I.


strangely ilike ADV



strangeness iliki N I.


strangeness ilninvi N I.


street tonat N C.


street lantern vuhefefa a tonat N C.


strength lumo N I.


strength lumomat N I.

Physical power or strength only.
stress netuuni N I.


stretch daho V T

only used in transitive sentences with 'at ... li' to mean 'to stretch from ... to'
strike tefo V EV

referring to 'strike' in phrases like 'the clocks were striking twelve'
strike seo V EV


strike vetto V EV


strike sei N I.


string kanafi N C.


string sikulu N C.


strive towards mohomoo V EV


stroll sondi N I.


structure oluma N C.

a (physical) construction, particularly buildings, bridges etc.
student fuumimo N I.


study fuumi N I.

non-scientific study
study noitosano V EV

intransitive sentences only, for scholarly knowledge/formal education
study saihon N C.

referring to the room, not the activity
study fuumi N I.

not just in the sense of 'a recent study shows that...', but also encompassing any kind of scholary undertaking
study fuumo V EV


study hard jaso V EV


studying fuumi N I.


stuff va N C.

for stuff/things you know about
stuff vi N I.

For unspecified stuff, or stuff you don't know about
stuff onko V EV


stuff a piece of bread and honey in a person's mouth during that person's first visit to your house saimehao ... ehe Fales V EV

the '...' is to be replaced by the subject of the sentence
stump kaat N C.


stun molo V EV


stupidity ilajeohi N I.

General ignorance, especially for those who think they know a lot, but are sorely mistaken, or for those who think that 'knowing things' is not as useful as a fist.
The 'annoying' kind of ignorance, often defying attempts at correction/education.
sturgeon daike N C.


style toni N I.

Not limited to fashion-related uses.
stylus hotivo N C.


subatomic particle vifi N I.


subconscious sainu N W.


subdue lumadoo V EV


subject va N I.

The broad subject of a talk, discussion, field of study, etc.
'Linguistics', 'Sports', 'Plans for tomorrow' are broad topics.
'The winning strategy of our team' and 'The trip to the mountains tomorrow' are more specific topics and would use 'sinitahi'.
subject sinitahi N I.

the specific subject of a talk, discussion etc.
subject nesaniva N I.

for school subjects, fields of studies or similar

stress on the last syllable to distinguish it from 'nesaniva' (physics/chemistry)
subject ama N I.


subjunctive indicator -t AFF


attaches to the infinitive form if no triggers are present
submarine vailita a saanuva N C.


submerge unoso V EV

to submerge in water
substance va N C.


substantialness va N I.


subtraction hedohei N I.


succeed lomoho V UEV

only used intransitively
succeed at amefoko V EV


succeed in amefoko V EV


succeed with amefoko V EV


success amefoke N I.


succession todehenti N I.


suck emtoo V EV


suffer ilikimo V EV


suffering ilikimi N I.


suffering lumadou N I.

Suffering under oppression.
suffice lo V UEV


suffice onko V UEV

when used with liquids in intransitive sentences
sufficiency lii N I.


suffocate hedoheo huuti V EV


sugar kim N C.


suggest hao sahaamo V EV


suicide ilvuninohi he N I.


sun vuha N I.


Sun vuha PPR C.


sunflower tekulse N C.


sunflower oil menesa a tekulse N C.


sunflower seed nike a tekulse N C.


sunglasses jivo nuhe vuha N C.


sunlight vuhova N I.


sunray savuha N C.


sunrise edoivuhi N I.


sunset ijavuhi N I.


supplies nunova N C.


supply edovova N I.


supply edovo V EV


support vunojo V EV

to support a theory or belief or point towards a particular conclusion
support udimi N I.


support udimo V EV


support uso V EV


support udimivo N I.


support uso V EV


suppress hotuvo V EV

Also used for e.g. languages or religions, including with not physically violent means like censorship or psychological warfare.
suppress noito motevo V EV


suppress netuuno V EV

To suppress painful, awkward or embarrassing memories, thoughts or feelings
suppression hotuvi N I.


suppression dahohi N I.

Commonly used together with these words:

'dahohi a tahivade' – 'suppression of words'
'dahohi a vunojade/nioonide' – 'suppression of a show/movie'
'dahohi a hotifide' – 'suppression of a book'

Not used when talking about the suppression of people, a language or a religion (use 'hotuvohi' for that)
supremacy nohefi N I.


surprise ilsahasi N I.


surrender nohea N I.


surrender noheo